We would like to thank the faculty and residents in the Family Medicine Center and OB/GYN Clinic who assisted with specimen collection, Jim Best for processing and interpreting cytologic specimens
, Aisha Lavin for data management assistance, and April Dean for manuscript preparation.
The use of cytologic specimens
in diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infection offers many advantages, including minimally invasive approaches to obtain specimens, rapid turnaround time, and cost effectiveness.
Laboratories typically optimize and validate their IHC assays by using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues but may use cytologic specimens
in some circumstances; however, cytologic specimens
usually have different fixation and processing methods and these factors may have unknown effects on IHC test results.
Given the diversity of cytopathologic specimen types and the different methods of fixation and processing available, options for procuring DNA from cytologic specimens
for molecular analysis vary; material can be successfully obtained from cell blocks, smears, cytospins, and liquid-based preparations.
All of these will be used for exploration, and because of their controlled manipulability, the physician will be able to obtain cytologic specimens
with instruments inserted through them.
(8,9) These crystals can be seen in cytologic specimens
as well as in tissues.
We applied this strategy for rapid diagnosis of high-risk HPV infection to 50 cytologic specimens
from women with suspected HPV infection and compared the results with those obtained by conventional PCR-ELISA.
It offers a standardized specimen-preparation method for a variety of cytologic specimens
that minimizes cell loss and preserves morphologic detail for clinical diagnosis.
To rely on cytologic examination alone is not recommended since cytologic specimens
may exhibit a false-negative rate as high as 27%.(11)(12) In up to 30% of patients with LGSIL on cytology, biopsy will confirm CIN 3 (severe dysplasia, carcinoma in situ) or worse.(7)(13) The rates of regression for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HGSIL) are much lower that for LGSIL.(14) HGSIL includes CIN 2 and 3 (moderate and severe dysplasia and carcinoma in situ).
These tests provide the most-precise information about fusion patterns, but they require multiple reactions with specific primers, can miss unknown variants, and can risk false-negative results because of poor quality and quantity of RNA from FFPE and cytologic specimens
. (18,19) A sensitive, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction method was developed to detect the overexpression of 3' regions of fusion transcripts for tumor genes that are usually repressed in lung tissues, such as ALK.
ThinPrep Processor clinical trials demonstrate an increased detection rate of abnormal cervical cytologic specimens
. Am I Clin Patbol.
Cervical cytologic specimens
were obtained with a Cytobrush (MedScand [USA], Inc, Hollywood, Fla) and spatula or with a Cervex-Brush (Unimar, Inc, Wilton, Conn).