Some experts recommend anal cytologic screening
or high-resolution anoscopy for HIV-positive men and women, but it's worth noting that strategy hasn't been incorporated into any national practice guidelines.
A 4-step discordance was considered a cytologic screening
Acetic acid visualization of the cervix: an alternative to cytologic screening
Whether cytologic screening
is efficacious in preventing anal cancer remains unproven (though probable), while cytology screening has proved valuable in preventing cervical cancer (though not in a randomized trial).
Digital anal-rectal examination and anal cytologic screening
followed by annual screening is recommended in the following women:
cohort of 19,512 women who underwent routine cytologic screening
when they were aged 16-94 years at baseline in 1989-1990.
Automated screening instruments have improved the sensitivity of cytologic screening
These data support the need for studies of anal cytologic screening
of HIV-positive women.
For HPV or cytologic screening
, the nurse-midwives collected cervical cells for testing; women received results within two weeks, and those who tested positive were given appointments for colposcopy, biopsy and treatment.
The availability of a non cytologic screening
method not requiring a vaginal speculum examination may reduce underscreening in women who have access to health care.
Liquid-based Pap tests have been shown to increase the sensitivity of cytologic screening
in most, although not all studies.
A computer-based model of the natural history of HPV and cervical cancer developed by the Harvard School of Public Health considered different cancer prevention policies, including vaccination against HPV types 16 and 18 (initiated at the age of 12 years), cytologic screening
(initiated at 18, 21, 25, 30, or 35 years,) and combined vaccination and screening strategies.