cytokine


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Related to cytokine: Cytokine storm

cytokine

 
a generic term for nonantibody proteins released by one cell population on contact with specific antigen, which act as intercellular mediators, as in the generation of an immune response.

cy·to·kine

(sī'tō-kīn),
Any of numerous hormonelike, low-molecular-weight proteins, secreted by various cell types, which regulate the intensity and duration of immune response and mediate cell-to-cell communication. See: interferon, interleukin, lymphokine, chemokines. See entries under various growth factors
See also: interferon, interleukin, lymphokine.
[cyto- + G. kinēsis, movement]

Most cytokines are small (less than 30 kD) soluble proteins or glycoproteins. Produced by macrophages, B and T lymphocytes, mast cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and stromal cells of the spleen, thymus, and bone marrow, they act nonenzymatically through specific receptors to regulate immune responses, in particular modulating the balance between humoral and cell-mediated responses. They are involved in mediating immune and allergic responses by regulating the maturation, growth, and responsiveness of particular cell populations, sometimes including the cells that produce them (autocrine activity). A given cytokine may be produced by more than one type of cell. Some cytokines enhance or inhibit the action of other cytokines. Their complex synergistic and antagonistic interactions fully justify the expression cytokine network. The first cytokines to be identified were named according to their functions (for example, T-cell growth factor), but this nomenclature became awkward because several cytokines can have the same function, and the function of a cytokine can vary with the circumstances of its elaboration. Later, as the chemical structure of each cytokine was determined, it was designated an interleukin and assigned a number (for example, interleukin-2 [IL-2], formerly T-cell growth factor). Cytokines have been implicated in the generation and recall of long-term memory and the focusing of attention. Some degenerative effects of aging may be due to a progressive loss of regulatory capacity by cytokines. Because cytokines derived from the immune system (immunokines) are cytotoxic, they have been used against certain types of cancer. Their clinical usefulness is limited by their short half-life and their wide-ranging and unpredictable side-effects.

cytokine

(sī′tə-kīn′)
n.
Any of several regulatory proteins, such as the interleukins and lymphokines, that are released by cells of the immune system and act as intercellular mediators in the generation of an immune response.

cytokine

Biological response modifier Any of a number of small 5–20 kD polypeptide signaling proteins of the immune system, which are produced by immune cells and have specific effects on cell-cell interaction, communication and behavior of other cells. See Biological response modifiers, Colony stimulating factor(s. ), Fibroblast growth factor, Interferons, Interleukins, Platelet-derived growth factor, Transforming growth factor β, Tumor necrosis factor.

cy·to·kine

(sī'tō-kīn)
Hormonelike proteins, secreted by many cell types, which regulate the intensity and duration of immune responses and are involved in cell-to-cell communication.
See also: interferon, interleukin, lymphokine
[cyto- + G. kinēsis, movement]

cytokine

intercellular PROTEIN or GLYCOPROTEIN signalling molecule, secreted by many cell types and involved in cellular regulation and proliferation. Cytokines exert their effects by binding to specific RECEPTORS on the membrane of target cells. They include GROWTH FACTORS, INTERLEUKINS and LYMPHOKINES.

Cytokine

A general term for nonantibody proteins released by a specific type of cell as part of the body's immune response.

cy·to·kine

(sī'tō-kīn)
Any of numerous hormonelike, low-molecular-weight proteins, secreted by various cell types, which regulate the intensity and duration of immune response and mediate cell-to-cell communication.
See: interferon, interleukin
[cyto- + G. kinēsis, movement]
References in periodicals archive ?
Association between organ dysfunction and cytokine concentrations during the early phases of septic shock.
Dual role of GM-CSF as a pro-inflammatory and a regulatory cytokine: implications for immune therapy.
However, the adjunct therapeutic use of recombinant cytokine(s) shows much better outcome as it reduces the parasitic load in visceral organs and skews the cytokine milieu dominantly towards Th1.
IL-2 is a secretory cytokine generated by activated T lymphocytes, which induces T cells, B cells, and NK cells to proliferate and produce other cytokines (26).
On the other hand, SS is considered to present with B-cell hyperactivity, mainly through Ab production, but cytokine derangement related to B-cell development has been also observed (37).
These factors might include maternal health condition before and during pregnancy, multiparity, and other cytokine levels during pregnancy such as leptin, interferon gamma etc.
in 26 critically ill patients with septic shock evaluated the impact of the Cytosorb hemoadsorption device and found that treatment with cytokine hemoadsorption in these patients was associated with hemodynamic stabilization and blood lactate reduction.
Table 2 describes the cytokine levels among leptospirosis patients with mild disease (without complications) and patients with renal failure, while Table 3 describes the cytokine levels among patients with mild disease and patients with liver insufficiency.
Serial dilution of cytokine standards was prepared in the range instructed by the manufacturer and added to the wells (each standard was added to 2 wells to provide duplicates).