0mg higher-dose of cytisine
administered over the currently indicated 25-day scheduled duration of cytisine
Pharmaceutical company Achieve Life Sciences Inc (Nasdaq:ACHV) reported on Wednesday the launch of the Cytisine
Clinical Development Programme to help combat nicotine addiction across the globe.
It is estimated that over 20 m people have used cytisine
to help combat nicotine addiction, including approximately 2,000 patients in Phase 3 clinical trials conducted in Europe and New Zealand.
A 2012 Cochrane review identified 2 recent RCTs evaluating cytisine
and found it to be effective in increasing smoking cessation rates vs placebo (RR=3.
is a plant-based alkaloid that, like varenicline, is a partial agonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.
As it has not been used extensively in Oceania, research was funded by the Health Research Council of New Zealand to investigate the use of cytisine
for smokers in New Zealand (NZ).
Among study participants who resumed smoking after completing treatment, the median time to relapse was significantly longer with cytisine
(53 days) than with nicotine replacement (11 days).
Scientists in randomly assigned 1,310 smokers to receive cytisine
tablets or nicotine patches, gum, and lozenges.
Pre-clinical properties of the a4132 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonists varenicline, cytisine
and dianicline translate to clinical efficacy for nicotine dependence.
Two nicotine receptor partial agonists have been marketed: varenicline (Champix - registered in SA) and cytisine
(Tabex not registered in SA).
Those include the antidepressant nortriptyline and cytisine
, a plant-derived supplement.
Among these are some touchstone ligands currently on the market or under clinical investigation including varenicline (Chantix), sazetidine A, cytisine
and natural toxins, such as anatoxin A.