Expression and functional role of Cdx2 in intestinal metaplasia of cystitis glandularis. J Urol 2013; 190:1083-9.
Cystitis glandularis. Diagn Cytopathol 2008; 36:181-2.
After obtaining informed consent, we gathered 130 patients treated for cystitis glandularis between February 2006 and August 2011.
Cystitis glandularis would be conventionally treated by transurethral electrovaporization on bladder inflammatory lesion according to pathologic diagnosis; other associated lesions would be treated with appropriate therapy.
We refer to a lesion as cystitis glandularis
when there is benign glandular differentiation in the von Brunn nests, (40) while cystitis cystica is used when glandular structures show cystic dilatation.
The possibility that intestinal metaplasia is a putative precursor lesion to adenocarcinoma has been raised owing to the finding of significant telomere shortening in intestinal metaplasia with or without associated cystitis glandularis
. (66) However, clinicopathologic correlation studies do not show an increased risk of developing cancer in patients with long-term follow-up of intestinal metaplasia.
2009 Morphological evaluation of cystitis glandularis
. Indian J Pathol Microbiol2009;52:203-5http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0377-4929.48918.
Divergent pathway of intestinal metaplasia and cystitis glandularis
of the urinary bladder.
As such, it can also mimic the glandular neoplastic lesions discussed in the differential diagnosis of cystitis cystica and cystitis glandularis
. Identification of its characteristic morphologic features and immunohistochemical profile (see above) should be able to distinguish NA from these neoplastic lesions.
It must be remembered that bone is occasionally found in the bladder in nonneoplastic conditions. In one instance, the lesion appears to have been an example of encrusted cystitis, and in another, a case of polypoid cystitis glandularis
. With the exception of the differential diagnosis already discussed, the diagnosis of osteosarcoma of the bladder should not be difficult.
Focal lymphoepithelial lesions were seen in the biopsies of cases 2 and 4, and in both cases the involvement was restricted to areas of cystitis glandularis
A polypoid structure containing cuboidal epithelium consistent with a nephrogenic polyp and other areas with intestinal-type epithelium with presence of goblet cells and extracellular mucin consistent with cystitis glandularis
were present in the bladder.