For prevention of calcium oxalate, cystine
, and uric acid stones, urine should be alkalinized by eating a diet high in fruits and vegetables, taking supplemental or prescription citrate, or drinking alkaline mineral waters.
We found statistically significant correlations between increased resistance to itraconazole and higher enzymatic activity of naphthyl phosphohydrolase and alpha-galactosidase; increased resistance to fluconazole and higher enzymatic activity of trypsin and beta-glucosidase; increased susceptibility to 5-fluorocytosine and higher enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase, valine arylamidase, trypsin and chymotrypsin; increased susceptibility to ketoconazole and higher enzymatic activity of cystine
Impairment of the transporter system responsible for transporting cystine
out of lysosomes results in the accumulation of cystine
crystals in tissues such as the kidneys, eyes, bone marrow, liver, spleen, pancreas, thyroid, skeletal muscles, thyroid, and brain.
The goal of treatment in cystinuria is to prevent recurrence of stones by decreasing urinary cystine
concentrations to below the solubility limit (< 250 mg/L) or increasing the solubility of cystine
As seen in Figure 3, after an 88-day interval, the increase for cysteic acid and cystine
dioxide is significantly higher than for other S-species.
If plasma homocysteine concentrations remain well controlled and if protein stores and growth parameters are of no concern but cystine
levels are below the reference range, extra supplementation may offer little benefit.
Based upon the relative percentages for each of these four proteins within the whey protein fraction and the number of cystine
or glutamylcysteine residues contained within each protein, we calculated the approximate concentration of each of these GSH precursors with which CGNs were treated (Table 3).
The mean lead levels of various types of calculi were found to follow the order as phosphate > oxalate > urate.> cystine
while single principal group of supra gingival calculi resulted in lower levels of metal.
Zhou, Redox reactions of and transformation between cysteine-mercury thiolate and cystine
in metallothioneins adsorbed at a thin mercury film electrode, Langmuir 17, 4081 (2001).
The disorder results from dysfunction or absence of the cystinosin protein, a lysosomal membrane transporter that serves to export cystine
from the lumen of the lysosome (2, 3).
The effects of GanedenBC 30 with protein were examined in a random double blind crossover clinical trial on key amino acids including leucine (the regulator for muscle protein synthesis), isoleucine and valine (branched chain amino acids), as well as histidine, alanine, asparagines, citrulline, cystine
, glutamine (a key amino acid for supporting ph balance and the immune system), methionine, ornthinine, serine, threonine, tryptophan and phenylalanine.
Similarly the effect of 0.01% amino acid solution of alanine, aspartic acid, cysteine, cystine
, glutamine, histidine, leucine, lysine, tyrosine and thiamine supplemeted in basal medium was investigated.