One infant showed diffuse cystic periventricular leukomalacia (c-PVL) that transformed from PVE-III after 2 weeks.
GMH-IVH and CPH were considered as primary injuries, and hydrocephaly, cystic periventricular leukomalacias, widened extracranial space, and subependymal cysts were considered as secondary injuries.
In this neonatal ultrasound screening study that is the only available trial in which cranial abnormalities were assessed across the whole range of gestational ages (24-43 weeks gestation), the overall incidence of WMD was 0.02%, 0.02%, and 2.6% for periventricular leukomalacia, porencephaly (cystic periventricular leukomalacia), and enlarged lateral ventricles, respectively ; however, only cerebral hemorrhage but not WMD was evaluated.
The various forms of white matter damage, including "lateral ventricle asymmetry," "lateral ventricle enlargement," "lateral ventricle bilateral enlargement" (defined as an enlargement of the lateral ventricle without ventricular asymmetry), "posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus," "diffuse periventricular leukomalacia," and "cystic periventricular leukomalacia (porencephaly)" as observed in individual patients (n = 61) are listed in Table 1.
Periventricular-intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) and white matter injury (WMI), particularly cystic periventricular leukomalacia
(cPVL), are major contributors to mortality and long-term morbidity in preterm infants.
Correlation of US findings of cystic periventricular leukomalacia
(PVL) with neuropathologic data was evaluated in three studies (10-12).
A major cause is cystic periventricular leukomalacia (cPVL) comprising necrosis and subsequent cyst formation of the periventricular white matter: 60-100% of children with cPVL develop cerebral palsy [4-6].
Mizutani, "Possible antenatal and perinatal related factors in development of cystic periventricular leukomalacia," Brain & Development, vol.
Effects of hypocarbia on the development of cystic periventricular leukomalacia
in premature infants treated with high-frequency jet ventilation.
Prenatal exposure to betamethasone, but not dexamethasone, significantly reduced the risk of cystic periventricular leukomalacia
, a major cause of cerebral palsy, reported Dr.
Cystic periventricular leukomalacia
is associated with chorioamnionitis.