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Related to cyclophosphamide: vincristine


a cytotoxic alkylating agent, one of the nitrogen mustards, used in antineoplastic therapy for a wide variety of conditions, often in combination with other agents; also used as an immunosuppressant to prevent transplant rejection and in the treatment of certain diseases with abnormal immune function.


Endoxana (UK), Procytox (CA)

Pharmacologic class: Alkylating agent, nitrogen mustard

Therapeutic class: Antineoplastic

Pregnancy risk category D


Unclear. Thought to prevent cell division by cross-linking DNA strands, thereby interfering with growth of susceptible cancer cells.


Powder for injection: 500 mg, 1 g, 2 g

Tablets: 25 mg, 50 mg

Indications and dosages

Hodgkin's disease; malignant lymphoma; multiple myeloma; leukemia; advanced mycosis fungoides; neuroblastoma; ovarian cancer; breast cancer; and certain other tumors

Adults: Initially, 40 to 50 mg/kg I.V. in divided doses over 2 to 5 days, or 10 to 15 mg/kg I.V. q 10 days, or 3 to 5 mg/kg I.V. twice weekly.

Children: Initially, 2 to 8 mg/kg or 60 to 250 mg/m2 P.O. or I.V. daily in divided doses for 6 or more days.

Maintenance dosage is 2 to 5 mg/kg or 50 to 150 mg/m2 P.O. twice weekly.

Biopsy-proven nephrotic syndrome in children

Children: 2.5 to 3 mg/kg/day P.O. for 60 to 90 days

Off-label uses

• Severe rheumatologic conditions
• Selected cases of severe progressive rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus


• Hypersensitivity to drug
• Severe bone marrow depression


Use cautiously in:
• renal or hepatic impairment, adrenalectomy, mild to moderate bone marrow depression, other chronic debilitating illnesses
• females of childbearing age
• pregnant patients
• breastfeeding patients (use not recommended).


• Verify that patient isn't pregnant before administering.
• Follow facility procedures for safe handling, administration, and disposal of chemotherapeutic drugs.
• Administer tablets on empty stomach. If drug causes severe GI upset, give with food.
• Don't cut or crush tablets.
• Know that dosage may need to be decreased if drug is given with other antineoplastics.
• Dilute each 100 mg of powder with 5 ml of sterile water for injection, to yield 20 mg/ml. Further dilute with compatible fluid, such as 5% dextrose injection, 5% dextrose and normal saline solution for injection, 5% dextrose and Ringer's injection, lactated Ringer's injection, or half-normal saline solution for injection.
• For I.V. injection, give each 100 mg over at least 1 minute. When giving dosages above 500 mg diluted in 100 to 250 ml of compatible solution, administer over 20 to 60 minutes.
• Use solution prepared with bacteriostatic water for injection within 24 hours if stored at room temperature or within 6 days if refrigerated.
• To minimize bladder toxicity, increase patient's fluid intake during therapy and for 1 to 2 days afterward. Most adults require fluid intake of at least 2 L/day.

Adverse reactions

CV: cardiotoxicity

GI: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain or discomfort, stomatitis, oral mucosal ulcers, anorexia, hemorrhagic colitis

GU: urinary bladder fibrosis, hematuria, amenorrhea, decreased sperm count, sterility, acute hemorrhagic cystitis, renal tubular necrosis, hemorrhagic ureteral inflammation

Hematologic: anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, bone marrow depression, neutropenia

Hepatic: jaundice

Metabolic: hyperuricemia

Respiratory: interstitial pulmonary fibrosis

Skin: nail and pigmentation changes, alopecia

Other: poor wound healing, infections, allergic reactions including anaphylaxis, secondary cancer


Drug-drug.Allopurinol, thiazide diuretics: increased risk of leukopenia

Digoxin: decreased digoxin blood level

Cardiotoxic drugs (such as cytarabine, daunorubicin, doxorubicin): additive cardiotoxicity

Chloramphenicol: prolonged cyclophosphamide half-life

Phenobarbital: increased risk of cyclophosphamide toxicity

Quinolones: decreased antimicrobial effect

Succinylcholine: prolonged neuromuscular blockade

Warfarin: increased anticoagulant effect

Drug-diagnostic tests.Hemoglobin, platelets, pseudocholinesterase, red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells: decreased values

Uric acid: increased level

Patient monitoring

• Assess infusion site for signs of extravasation.
• Monitor hematologic profile to determine degree of hematopoietic suppression. Be aware that leukopenia is an expected drug effect and is used to help determine dosage.
• Monitor urine regularly for RBCs, which may precede hemorrhagic cystitis.

Patient teaching

• Tell patient to take tablets on empty stomach. However, if GI upset occurs, instruct him to take them with food.

Advise patient to promptly report unusual bleeding or bruising, fever, chills, sore throat, cough, shortness of breath, seizures, lack of menstrual flow, unusual lumps or masses, flank or stomach pain, joint pain, mouth or lip sores, or yellowing of skin or eyes.
• Instruct patient to drink 2 to 3 L of fluids daily (unless prescriber has told him to restrict fluids).
• Tell patient that drug may cause hair loss, but that hair usually grows back after treatment ends.
• Advise female patient to use barrier contraception during therapy and for 1 month afterward.
• Advise breastfeeding women not to breastfeed while taking this drug.
• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs and tests mentioned above.

cy·clo·phos·pha·mide (CTX),

An alkylating agent with antitumor activity and uses similar to those of its parent compound, nitrogen mustard (mechlorethamine hydrochloride); also a suppressor of B-cell activity and antibody formation.


/cy·clo·phos·pha·mide/ (-fos´fah-mīd) a cytotoxic alkylating agent of the nitrogen mustard group; used as an antineoplastic, as an immunosuppressant to prevent transplant rejection, and to treat some diseases characterized by abnormal immune function.


A cytotoxic, immunosuppressive, antineoplastic drug, C7H15Cl2N2O2P, used in the treatment of Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas and various other forms of cancer, including multiple myeloma, breast cancer, and certain types of leukemia.


an alkylating agent.
indications It is prescribed in the treatment of neoplasms and as an immunosuppressant in organ transplantation.
contraindications It is teratogenic in animals. It is not used during pregnancy. Adequate methods of contraception should be considered for both males and females who are using it. It is used neither in patients with known hypersensitivity to the drug nor in patients with severely depressed bone marrow function. It is used with caution with impaired renal or hepatic function or with various blood disorders.
adverse effects Among the more serious adverse reactions are anorexia, vomiting, alopecia, leukopenia, cardiotoxicity, thrombocytopenia, and potentially serious hemorrhagic cystitis.


Cytoxan®, Neosar® Oncology An alkylating chemotherapeutic used for lymphomas, CAs, and for immunosuppression in nephrotic syndrome Adverse effects BM suppression, cystitis, alopecia, N&V Contraindications Hypersensitivity, marked thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, hemorrhagic cystitis, lung toxicity related to previous therapy with an alkylating agent


An alkylating agent with antitumor activity and uses similar to those of its parent compound, nitrogen mustard (mechlorethamine hydrochloride); also a suppressor of B-cell activity and antibody formation.


A drug that substitutes an open chain hydrocarbon radical for a hydrogen atom in a cyclic organic compound. It is an alkylating agent and is used as an anticancer drug for its alkylating action on the guanine molecule in DNA. The margin between the effective dose and the dangerous dose is narrow. Side effects include loss of hair, sterility, sickness and vomiting and depression of blood formation by the bone marrow. The drug is on the WHO official list. A brand name is Endoxana.


antiproliferative, immunosuppressive agent used to treat severe rheumatoid arthritis with associated systemic manifestations, or severe presentations of other connective tissue diseases (i.e. characterized by severe vasculitis)


Drugs that prevent or reduce the immune response. They are used in the treatment of a variety of severe inflammations such as uveitis, scleritis, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, Behçet's syndrome, sympathetic ophthalmia, and to prevent corneal graft rejection. They include the corticosteroids (e.g. prednisolone), ciclosporin (cyclosporine), tacrolimus, and cytotoxic agents (e.g. azathioprine, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate). It must be noted that immunosuppressants render the patient more susceptible to infection because immunity is reduced.


Alkylating agent with antitumor activity and uses similar to those of its parent compound, nitrogen mustard.

cyclophosphamide (sīklōfos´fəmīd´),

n brand names: Cytoxan, Neosar, Procytox;
drug class: antineoplastic alkylating agent;
action: alkylates DNA, RNA; inhibits enzymes that allow synthesis of amino acids in proteins;
uses: Hodgkin's disease; lymphomas; leukemia; cancer of female reproductive tract, lung, prostate; multiple myeloma; neuroblastoma; retinoblastoma; Ewing's sarcoma.


a neoplastic suppressant used in the treatment of lymphomas and leukemias.
References in periodicals archive ?
Cyclophosphamide therapy for lupus nephritis: poor renal survival in black Americans.
The primary objectives of the trial include determining the Minimum Effective Immunomodulatory Dose (MED) of cyclophosphamide to obtain successful immune modulation.
The alveolar hemorrhage was eventually controlled with cyclophosphamide at a dose of 2 mg/kg/d and prednisone 1 mg/kg/d.
In this trial where now 41 breast cancer patients have been enrolled from three different hospitals we have 15 confirmed pathologic complete responses out of 38 patients (39%) who have undergone surgery, which is higher than what has been previously reported with preoperative chemotherapy, consisting of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel, in HER-2 negative breast cancer patients," said Dr.
At approximately 46 weeks after presentation, cyclophosphamide (5 mg/kg PO q24h for 4 days, repeat in 21 days; Cytoxan, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ, USA, compounded into a 5 mg/mL suspension by Carr Drugs) was added to the prednisone treatment; latex gloves were worn when handling the chemotherapeutic agent.
5 percent reduction following cyclophosphamide, a 22.
The primary objective of the study was to compare the recurrence-free survival of patients receiving single-agent docetaxel (T), followed by cyclophosphamide, epirubicin and 5-FU (CEF) to those receiving docetaxel with capecitabine (XT), followed by cyclophosphamide, epirubicin and capecitabine (CEX) in the adjuvant treatment of early breast cancer.
The study also confirmed the previously reported findings that cyclophosphamide treatment and older age were linked with PGF in women with SLE.
This exciting Mayo Clinic work supported the initiation of our combination REOLYSIN(R) and cyclophosphamide clinical trial, recently approved by the U.
To the Editor: Hepatotoxicity during high-dose cyclophosphamide (CYC) therapy has been reported, (1,2) but hepatitis due to low-dose CYC treatment has rarely been described.
She continues outpatient follow-up care with a nephrologist to monitor treatment with cyclophosphamide and prednisone.
Classical induction and maintenance therapy of these conditions with corticosteroids and long-term cyclophosphamide is associated with occasional relapse and major toxicities.