Spermine ingestion significantly increased the gene expressions of cyclin A2 (Group SP-3 d vs Group Con-3 d; Group SP-6 d vs Group Con-6 d; Group SP-9 d vs Group Con-9 d) but markedly decreased mRNA expressions of p21 (Group SP-6 d vs Group Con-6 d; Group SP-9 d vs Group Con-9 d), cyclin D3
(Group SP-6 d vs Group Con-6 d), and cyclin E2 (Group SP-6 d vs Group Con-6 d; p<0.05).
Several studies have shown that SOX11, (13, 14) cyclin D2, and/or cyclin D3
(15, 16) are positive in these cases.
and Pedersen, N.T., Cyclin D3
expression in non-Hodgkin lymphoma: correlation with other cell cycle regulators and clinical features.
The antibodies used in this study include FGF21 (1: 1000, Abcam, USA), MyoD (1: 500, Santa Cruz, USA), MyoG (1: 500, Santa Cruz, USA), MEF2c (1: 500, Santa Cruz, USA), MHC (1: 500, Santa Cruz, USA), CDK4 (1:1000, CST, USA), P21 (1:1000, R&D, USA), P53 (CST) Cyclin D1 (1: 1000, R&D, USA), Cyclin D3
(1: 1000, R&D, USA), and tubulin (1: 1000, Abcam, USA), which were diluted with 5% BSA.
Candidate target genes of hsa-miR-424-5p and hsa-miR-377 Gene name Main pathway Target Accession gene ID hsa-miR-424-5p Hypoxia and angiogenesis HIF1A MIRT005926 CUL2 MIRT005927 Cell cycle CDK6 MIRT000938 CCND1 MIRT000941 CCNE1 MIRT000936 CCND3 MIRT000937 hsa-miR-377 MAPK pathway PPM1A MIRT000990 PI3K-akt pathway PAK1 MIRT000991 HIF1A: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1A; CUL2: Cullin 2; CDK: Cyclin-dependent kinase; CCND1: Cyclin D1; CCNE1: Cyclin E1; CCND3: Cyclin D3
; MAPK: Mitogen-activated protein kinase; PPM1A: Protein phosphatase magnesium-dependent 1A; PI3K: Phosphatidyl inositol 3'-kinase; PAK1: p21-activated kinase 1.
Antiproliferative effects were associated with a G2/M cell cycle arrest and reduced protein expression of cyclin dependent kinases (CDK) 2, 4, 6, cyclin D3
, and induced expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2C (p18) and 1A (p21).
Furthermore, edible berries like raspberry, gooseberry, black currant and low bush berry contain bioactive photochemical compounds such as phenolic acid, proanthrocyanidins, anthocyanin and other flavonoids that offer protection from breast cancer by arresting the cell cycle.1 These compounds down regulate the expressions of cdK2, cdK4, cyclin D1, cyclin D3
, inhibit Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF) induce COX-2 expression and activate the transcription factor NFKB.2 The former effects of berries are those that have been proven to prevent the cancer if down regulated, inhibited, induced and activated respectively.
Symbol Gene name 1 CCNA1 Cyclin A1 2 CCNA2 Cyclin A2 3 CCNB1 Cyclin B1 4 CCND1 Cyclin D1 5 CCND2 Cyclin D2 6 CCND3 Cyclin D3
7 CCNE1 Cyclin E1 8 CCNE2 Cyclin E2 9 CCNH Cyclin H 10 CDC25A Cell division cycle 25 homolog A (S.
The experiments targeted two related proteins, cyclin D1 (http://www.creativebiomart.net/description_6178_19.htm) and cyclin D3
, that control cells' growth cycle.
For example, in the inducible model no changes were detected in cyclin D1 and p21 but in cyclin D3
. Why the difference in the levels of expression of cyclins D and p21 between the models?
In all, 54% of myeloma tumors overexpress cyclin D1 (CCND1), 48% overexpress cyclin D2 (CCND2), 3% overexpress cyclin D3
(CCND3), and 8% overexpress both CCND1 and CCND2 (15).
Requirement for cyclin D3
in lymphocyte development and T cell leukemias.