Spermine ingestion significantly increased the gene expressions of cyclin A2 (Group SP-3 d vs Group Con-3 d; Group SP-6 d vs Group Con-6 d; Group SP-9 d vs Group Con-9 d) but markedly decreased mRNA expressions of p21 (Group SP-6 d vs Group Con-6 d; Group SP-9 d vs Group Con-9 d), cyclin D3 (Group SP-6 d vs Group Con-6 d), and cyclin E2 (Group SP-6 d vs Group Con-6 d; p<0.05).
As shown in Figure 2, in the spleen, gene expression of cyclin A2 (Group SP-3 d vs Group Con-3 d; Group SP-6 d vs Group Con-6 d; Group SP-9 d vs Group Con-9 d) significantly increased but p21 (Group SP-3 d relative to Group Con-3 d) and cyclin D3 (Group SP-9 d relative to Group Con-9 d) markedly decreased (p<0.05), and no significant difference was found in cyclin E2 mRNA abundance that was induced by spermine intake (p>0.05).
To further study the effect of spermine ingestion on other phases of the cell cycle, cyclin A2 gene was also evaluated.
In mammalian cell lines, cyclin A2, the main controlling factor of the progress of mitosis, is essential for DNA replication during prophase of mitosis, and the transition of pivotal points, such as the G1-S and G2-M phases, have an important regulating effect on cell cycle .
This analysis showed that Cyclin A2
levels were not significantly modified by CA, instead Cyclin B1 was dramatically downregulated (P< 0.001) (Figs.
Antibodies against cleaved caspase 3 (9664) and cyclin A2 (4656) were obtained from Cell Signaling (Beverly, MA).
(a) Western blot analysis of cell-cycle regulatory proteins (cyclin D1, cyclin E2, cyclin A2, cyclin B1, CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, p21, and p53) in Ad-GFP- and Ad-Bach1-infected HMVECs (n = 3; * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01).
Symbol Gene name 1 CCNA1 Cyclin A1 2 CCNA2 Cyclin A2
3 CCNB1 Cyclin B1 4 CCND1 Cyclin D1 5 CCND2 Cyclin D2 6 CCND3 Cyclin D3 7 CCNE1 Cyclin E1 8 CCNE2 Cyclin E2 9 CCNH Cyclin H 10 CDC25A Cell division cycle 25 homolog A (S.
miR-23b and miR-130b, which were reduced in GH, gonadotroph, and NFPA adenomas, were demonstrated to target HMGA2 and cyclin A2
cdc25A is an important mediator of the DNA damage checkpoint, so we further explored the complex network connecting cdc25A, CDK2, and cyclin A2 activity.
Cyclin A2, CDK2, and cdc25A regulate the S-phase of the cell cycle, with cdc25A activating CDK2 as well as the cyclin-CDK complex.
(e) The protein levels for 24 h of cdc25A, CDK2, and cyclin A2 were assessed by western blot.