Cyanobacteria

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Cyanobacteria

 
the blue-green bacteria (formerly called blue-green algae), a subgroup of the kingdom Procaryotae, unicellular or filamentous phototrophic organisms that use water as an electron donor and produce oxygen in the presence of light. They are the only organisms that fix both carbon dioxide (in the presence of light) and nitrogen. Most species are photosynthetic and many are strong nitrogen fixers. Several species are common causes of water pollution and are often used as indicators of eutrophication of lakes and streams.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cy·a·no·bac·te·ri·a

(sī'ă-nō-bak-tēr'ē-ă),
A division of the kingdom Prokaryotae consisting of unicellular or filamentous bacteria that are either nonmotile or possess a gliding motility, reproduce by binary fission, and perform photosynthesis with the production of oxygen. These blue-green bacteria were formerly referred to as blue-green algae.
Synonym(s): Cyanophyceae
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

Cy·a·no·bac·te·ri·a

(sī'ă-nō-bak-tēr'ē-ă)
A division of the kingdom Prokaryotae consisting of unicellular or filamentous bacteria that are either nonmotile or possess a gliding motility, reproduce by binary fission, and perform photosynthesis with the production of oxygen.
Synonym(s): Cyanophyceae.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

cyanobacteria (formerly blue-green algae)

a PHYLUM within the DOMAIN BACTERIA (see CLASSIFICATION). Cyanobacteria are a group of photosynthetic PROKARYOTES capable of OXYGENIC PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Some are also capable of ANOXYGENIC PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They were formerly called blue-green algae mainly because of the colour of many species, caused by a blue pigment called phycocyanin. They may also contain a red pigment called phycoerythrin. All members contain chlorophyll a. However, Prochloron additionally contains chlorophyll b (see CHLOROPHYLL). The cyanobacteria were possibly the first ORGANISMS on the earth to produce OXYGEN by photosynthesis. There is fossil evidence for their occurrence 3.5 x 109 years ago. The CELL WALL is analogous to that of Gram-negative BACTERIA (see GRAM'S STAIN and the LIGHT REACTIONS of photosynthesis occur on the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE system, within the cell. Other structures in the cell include carboxysomes, polyphosphate bodies as a PHOSPHATE reserve, and gas VACUOLES for buoyancy Some cyanobacteria are UNICELLULAR, others are filamentous (see FILAMENT (2)). They reproduce by fission or fragmentation. A number of species shows CELLULAR DIFFERENTIATION, with the formation of, for example, AKINETES, and specialized cells for NITROGEN FIXATION, called heterocysts. Cyanobacteria are widespread, being found in both terrestrial and aquatic environments that are illuminated. Some live in very inhospitable environments such as hot springs, where the temperature is in excess of 85 °C. They are responsible for much of the photosynthetic oxygen evolution in oceans and contribute to productivity through CARBON DIOXIDE fixation (see DARK REACTIONS) and NITROGEN FIXATION. Sometimes they accumulate in large numbers as BLOOMS on the surface of lakes, reservoirs and so on. These blooms may produce TOXINS.
Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
The axenic condition of the cultures was tested by transferring pieces of agar block with the cyanobacterial cultures to LB agar medium plates.
Previous reports on the studies of toxicokinetics and detoxification of MC suggested that the bivalves are sensitive to cyanobacterial toxins (Juhel et al.
Rinaldi et al., "A cyanobacterial LPS antagonist prevents endotoxin shock and blocks sustained TLR4 stimulation required for cytokine expression," The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.
Sentinel animals in a One Health approach to harmful cyanobacterial and algal blooms.
The exploitation of natural cyanobacterial products can result in the discovery of new compounds (lipopeptides, amino acids, fatty acids, macrolides) with antiprotozoal, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, antitumoral, cytotoxic, and other biological activities (Ehrenreich, Waterbury, & Webb, 2005; Singh, Tiwari, Rai, & Mohapatra, 2011; Costa et al., 2012).
Real-time data buoys have become a valuable tool for lake managers, water treatment plant operators, and the public to monitor cyanobacterial (cHAB) abundance in Lake Erie.
[16.] Tebbs EJ, Remedio JJ and DM Harper Remote sensing of chlorophyll-[alpha] as a measure of cyanobacterial biomass in Lake Bogoria, a hypertrophic, saline-alkaline, flamingo lake, using Landsat ETM +.
Status, causes and controls of cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Erie.
In this paper, the adaptive-clustering and error-correction methods were introduced to predict the chlorophyll a concentration used to characterize cyanobacterial bloom formation.
Neilan, "On the chemistry, toxicology and genetics of the cyanobacterial toxins, microcystin, nodularin, saxitoxin and cylindrospermopsin," Marine Drugs, vol.
The interval in fossil pigment record is characterized by a peak in [beta]-carotene (total productivity) in the 1970s and gradual increase in cantaxanthin (cyanobacterial pigments) from the 1930s.
The aim of this study was to develop a simple and rapid method to extract DNA from cyanobacterial which is useful for any routine molecular biological assay.