cyanide poisoning


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cyanide

 [si´ah-nīd]
a binary compound containing the radical CN— (cyanogen); since cyanide prevents tissue use of oxygen, most of its compounds are deadly poisons. Some inorganic compounds, such as cyanide salts, potassium cyanide, and sodium cyanide, are important in industry for extracting gold and silver from their ores or in electroplating, and other cyanide compounds are used in manufacture of synthetic rubber and textiles or as pesticides.
cyanide poisoning poisoning by cyanide or one of its compounds; most cyanide compounds are deadly poisons. Characteristics include nausea without vomiting, dizziness, convulsions, opisthotonos, and death from respiratory paralysis.

Treatment varies according to the nature of the poison. In the case of swallowed poison like hydrocyanic acid, the poison itself will cause vomiting. If the victim is able to swallow, milk or water may be given. A large dose of hydrocyanic acid will cause almost instant death. If a gas such as hydrogen cyanide has been inhaled, the victim should be taken into open air and given artificial respiration. Sodium thiosulfate and sodium nitrate are used as antidotes to cyanide poisoning.

While poisoning may occur following exposure to any substance that releases cyanide ions, it can also occur concurrently if another toxic ion is present (for example, with mercuric cyanide). In such a situation, ironically the symptoms of toxicity may change to those of the second ion when the antidote to cyanide is used.

cy·a·nide poi·son·ing

a fairly common disease of herbivorous animals, caused by eating cyanogenic plants containing glucosides that are hydrolyzed, yielding hydrocyanic acid; some farm chemicals (for example, fungicides, insecticides) may cause cyanide poisoning; hydrogen cyanide and its salts are extremely poisonous to humans, either by inhalation or by ingestion.

cyanide poisoning

Poisoning with a salt of hydrocyanic acid such as potassium cyanide or sodium cyanide or with hydrogen cyanide or its solution, prussic acid. Cyanide interferes with vital enzyme systems. Poisoning causes a rapid pulse, headache, convulsions and coma and may be rapidly fatal.
References in periodicals archive ?
Health education was conducted in the communities about cyanide poisoning from cassava and the need to adequately process cassava to reduce the cyanide content.
These crystals have been observed in the urine of both healthy subjects given hydroxocobalamin and patients treated with hydroxocobalamin following suspected cyanide poisoning [10].
The rationale for using hydroxocobalamin as an antidote to cyanide poisoning is based on its high affinity to the cyanide ion.
The enzymatic composition in mitochondria is critical, since cyanide poisoning occurs via inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain.
Various experimental studies revealed that acute and chronic cyanide poisoning leads to oxidative stress (Mills et al., 1996; Douglas et al., 2003; Abdel-Zaher et al., 2011).
There had also been searches for "making ricin' and "what are the symptoms of oral cyanide poisoning?" On his mobile phone, police found a Google search for "Abrin and ricin drugs" among another batch of internet searches.
Louise, who at twelve is easily the youngest of the seven, but nonetheless an accomplished scientist, correctly diagnoses cyanide poisoning. Although the girls are not fond of their unsympathetic Head, her murder is a nuisance.
The patient died of multiple organ failure related to cyanide poisoning induced by smoke inhalation.
Nicole and Kye, 49, were both diagnosed with hydrogen cyanide poisoning, which has left company director Kye paralysed from the waist down.
PITTSBURGH -- A former medical researcher was sentenced Wednesday to a mandatory life prison sentence without possibility of parole in the cyanide poisoning death of his neurologist wife.