The tests included: (a) 15-meter version of the PACER for cardiovascular endurance, (b) Curl-up test for abdominal muscular strength and endurance, (c) Push-up test for upper body strength and endurance, and (d) Trunk Lift for trunk extensor strength and flexibility.
The HFZ on Curl-up test for boys and girls at age of 10 should perform 12-24 and 12-26 curl-ups, respectively, while for boys and girls at age of 11 should perform 15-28 curl-ups and 15-29 curl-ups, respectively (Meredith and Welk, 2007).
The four essential teaching dimensions accounted for 6.1% of the total variance in Curl-up test for the total sample, 9% for boys, 4.1% for girls, 4.7% for fourth-grade students, and 9.2% for fifth-grade students.
The results of t-tests revealed that the students in the above-average QPET group significantly outperformed their counterparts in the below-average QPET group in PACER test ([t.sub.1096.27] = 5.536, p < 0.01) and Curl-up test ([t.sub.1057.45] = 7.553, p < 0.01), but not in Push-up and Trunk Lift tests.
Class Management contributed most to prediction of the students' curl-up test. Task Design and Instructional Guidance made significant contributions to prediction of the students' push-up test.
However, it is noted that the four teaching dimensions accounted for the total variance in PACER test (12.2%), followed by curl-up test (6.1%), and very low percentage of the variance in push-up test and Trunk Lift test for the total sample.
However, the QPET accounted for a relatively low percentage of the total variance in PACER test, followed by Curl-up test, and explained a very low percentage of the total variance in Push-up and Trunk Lift tests.
The following physiological assessment items from the BPFT (Winnick & Short, 1999) were performed on all the participants: (1) a sit-and-reach test to determine flexibility, (2) a one-mile run to measure cardiovascular fitness, (3) a push-up test to determine upper-body muscular endurance, (4) a curl-up test to evaluate abdominal muscular endurance, and (5) two site skinfold measures to estimate body composition.
The passing rates on the curl-up test for abdominal strength were a bit different among the groups.
As Table 2 shows, the girls also had almost similar passing rates (65.6%) as boys (62.6%) on the curl-up test. There was no significant difference between the groups.
In all major youth fitness test batteries, abdominal muscle strength/endurance is measured using a timed, bent-knee sit-up or curl-up test
. The curl-up involves a smaller range of motion ( < 45[degrees]) than does the sit-up (66[degrees] to 75[degrees]) and, by comparison, reduces involvement of hip flexor muscles.