Muscle strips were pretreated with 1 [micro]M carbachol for 5 min at 37[degrees]C in oxygenated KRB, and three 1 min washes with KRB, to remove any residual curariform
neuromuscular paralytics .
Future studies may use a topically applied curariform
agent in attempts to induce pupil dilation in American flamingos; vecuronium (32) and rocuronium (33-35) are agents that have proven effective at achieving mydriasis in a variety of avian species.
peripheral block of muscular tone selectively increases precentral N30 somatosensory evoked potentials component.
More pointedly, Alper draws upon the history of animal euthanasia and curariform drugs to argue against the use of pancuronium bromide in the three-drug lethal injection protocol.
(60) Not only can the single-drug procedure be given with ease even by less trained shelter workers, but "no AVMA-approved method of euthanasia includes a paralytic." (61) Also, the Humane Society "expressly condemns the use of curariform drugs like the one used in human lethal injections." (62)
Tetanus is treated with curariform
agents, tranquilizers, or barbiturate sedatives, in conjunction with tetanus antitoxin in horses.
In pharmacologic doses, magnesium has a curariform
action on the neuromuscular junction.
Presumably its use in Operation Desert Storm would be to protect persons from the effects of a type of nerve gas; it is already approved by FDA for use as an antidote to curariform
drugs and gallamine triethoxide, drugs that have toxic effects related to those of the nerve gas in question.
The achievement of mydriasis in conscious birds is only possible by using neuromuscular blocking agents such as curariform
(32) For that reason, they are often referred to as "curariform" drugs, because they have a curare-like effect.
(56) Anesthesiologists hailed the advent of curariform drugs in surgery, because their paralytic properties obviated the need for massive, and potentially dangerous, doses of anesthesia to control unwanted movement.
Certainly the animal welfare community is aware of the dangers of curare and curariform drugs; concerns about those drugs are reflected in both the professional standards of those who perform animal euthanasia, and in the laws and regulations governing animal euthanasia.