The results of current study provide the antibacterial activity of the peel and cupule
extracts of the oak.
It generates a series of hypotheses relating to the production and consumption of cupules
, three-dimensional, curvilinear and rectilinear rock art, and how this may have changed through time.
Fifty seed with intact cupules
were randomly selected from each imbibition treatment and placed in a box for germination testing.
The effect of G[A.sub.3] on germination of seeds with their cupule
intact was slight, with germination percentage increasing 5 to 8% when compared with untreated seed.
The internal portion of the image has been subjected to abrasion and pulverising to an extent that pounded hollows (large cupules
) are present.
Subsequently, the cupule
, lemma, and palea were removed.
Effect of Cupule
Removal or Presence on Germination
The nut is an acorn partially to almost entirely enclosed in a scaly, cup-shaped cupule
. The genus is subdivided into seven subgenera or sections: Erythrobalanus, Protobalanus, and Macrobalanus are restricted to the New World; Lepidobalanus is found in both the Old World and the New World; and Cyclobalanopsis, Cerris, and Mesobalanus are restricted to the Old World (Kubitzki, 1993).
New investigations of prehistoric sites in Myanmar by a joint Australia--Myanmar team have revealed important rock markings, including the first major cupule
site from mainland Southeast Asia.
Inception of the cupule
of Quercus macrocarpa and Fagus grandifolia.
However, as most Kirthar valleys abound in lovely ponds with turquoise water, he says the cupules
could also have symbolised water that was always there to slake the traveller's thirst.
Discussion touches on chronology and dating, cupules
, symbols, sites and styles of the Western archaic traditional rock art complex, and the origins and functions of abstract-geometric markings.