Each of the 4 blocks of experimental trials consisted of 128 trials, 64 cued and 64 uncued.
Whereas the group without a fixation cue showed a significant facilitatory effect (RT was 58 ms shorter for cued than for uncued trials, F(1, 14)=9.08, MSE=6026, p<.01), the group with a fixation cue showed an IOR effect (RT was 58 ms longer for cued than for uncued trials, F(1, 14)=8.79, MSE=6026, p<.02).
Indeed, one may predict that participants with high AQ scores may now be cued
more to tools than low AQ scorers, since Baron-Cohen (2003) suggests that people further along the autism spectrum have superior systemizing abilities, and hence are drawn to physical systems such as mechanical objects (Baron-Cohen et al., 1986; Baron-Cohen et al., 1997).
To determine the effects of display platform and cuing on the secondary task, a 2 (display) x 3 (cue: cued
imprecise, uncued) within-subjects ANOVA was conducted on both the response time and the accuracy for the secondary task.
Therefore we compared the measured values of ln[beta] for cued
instances with values of ln[beta] for uncued instances (for both targets and false alarms).
First, considering these explanations within the context of Posner general framework of exogenous attention being biphasic, with inhibition following a previous shift of attention towards the cued
location, if the likelihood of a distractor set the system to prevent orienting, then one might expect null cueing effects to occur rather than IOR.
When cuing was only 75% reliable, all distractors were always cued
, and these distractor objects were present (and cued
) on 25% of the trials.
In Figure 3 the filled symbols show responses when the uncued target (soldier) was present, the open symbols represent responses when the cued
target (tank) was present, and the triangles represent the data points for the nuclear devices.
The spatial distribution of the inhibitory effects elicited by a non-informative cue has been studied by several authors (Berlucchi et al., 1989; Gawryszewski et al., 1994a, 2002a; Tassinari et al., 1987) and the main findings are: (i) the inhibition is maximal when the target appears at the cue position; (ii) the inhibition decreases with cue-target distance and (iii) the vertical and horizontal meridians act as barriers that limit the spreading of inhibition, which can extend to the whole cued
An exogenous effect is also suggested in those distractor density combinations that visually cued
the local target area (e.g., 0%-20%, 0%-80%, 20%-80%, 80%-20%).
According to our results, the information given by the irrelevant cue was used to privilege the processing of the stimuli presented inside the cued
geometric shape, in a way analogous to what happens with a spatial cue.
Posner and Cohen (1984) showed that when the interval between cue and target (SOA) is 300 ms or greater, the pattern of results was reversed, such that Reaction Time (RT) was longer on cued
than on uncued trials.