Apically directed finger-like projections or ctenidia
present on the surface of the dorsal stylets helped to hold the egg in position (Rogers, 1972) as well as to stop the backward movement of the egg during oviposition process (Boring, 2010).
The association between the ctenidia
and labial palps belongs to category I of Stasek (1963) in which the anterior filaments of the inner demibranch are inserted but not fused with the anterior canal.
Abdomen: 2 short, pointed ctenidia
ventrally on fourth abdominal sternite (Fig.
In the tail region, the ventral and lateral nerve cords finally form a continuous loop as the suprarectal ganglion, from which the nerves for ctenidia
and posterior organs are derived (Fig.
Three 2-3-mm cross-sections were excised from each animal to obtain tissues from the following organs: siphon, ctenidia
, labial palps, mantle, heart, digestive organs, and gonad.
From the Spanish for trowel, paleta, which refers to the shape of the four ctenidia
were squash mounted and examined under 100X magnification light microscopy (Morton 1977, Britton & Morton 1982).
1]), as well as the movement of particles on the ctenidia
and labial palps of D.
The inhalant siphon transports seawater containing dissolved oxygen and suspended microalgae, which is pumped via the ciliated ctenidia
(gills), whereas the exhalant siphon expels rejected food particles and pseudo feces (Feldman et al.
Average isotope ratios obtained in scallop muscle and ctenidia
Similarly, inulin seems to cross the ctenidia
of the oyster Crassostrea gigas by a paracellular route (Hevert, 1984).
1995) suggested that interaction between the extracellular matrix of the cells and cilia and mucus of the bivalve ctenidia
could increase retention rates.