Our study for the first time confirms that in hyperoxaluric animals, rottlerin treatment leads to reduced renal cellular injury, diminished crystalluria
, reduced NADPH oxidase activity as well as a decline in translocation of PKC<5 from cytoplasmic fraction to the membrane and mitochondrial fraction, suggesting an inhibition of PKC[delta] activity.
In addition, they reported that crystalluria
was more important in lithiasis subjects compared with healthy non-fasting patients.
Apart from symptomatic improvement, one can monitor therapy with regular urinalysis to rule out calcium crystalluria
, which may be suggestive of hypercalcaemia Patients who cannot be monitored regularly in an ideal manner should be prescribed lower, but more frequent doses of oral vitamin D3.
This effect can be used in case of lithokinetic therapy, crystalluria
, after removal of drainage systems (stents, nephrostomy), and chronic urinary stones excretion.
Pathophysiology of drug-induced nephropathy Level of the nephron Action Drugs Preglomerular Afferent arteriolar Cyclosporine (afferent arteriole) constriction Glomerulus Decreased GFR NSAIDs (prostaglandins) Gold, NSAIDs Glomerulonephritis Penicillamine, cisplatin Proximal tubules Acute tubular necrosis Aminoglycosides, radiocontrast dyes Distal tubules Renal tubular ACE inhibitors, acidosis type 4 cyclosporine Tubules and ducts Crystalluria
Acyclovir, sulphonamide Interstitium Interstitial nephritis Penicillin, allopurinol Renal papilla Papillary necrosis NSAIDs, analgesics Table 2.
Drugs and imaging dyes can also cause similar looking crystalluria
and should be considered in cases of unexpected urinary crystals.
Both drugs share common adverse effects including hypersensitivity reactions hemolytic anemia proteinuria and crystalluria
in marathon runners: standard marathon-males.
Sulfadiazine-related nephrotoxicity is through crystalluria
due to acidified urine, leading to tubular obstruction.
Sulfadiazine, one of the oldest sulfa drugs, was widely used in the mid-1900s and has been a well-documented cause of crystalluria
since the 1940s.
Criteria for evaluation of the activity of the process of stone formation were chosen the degree of crystalluria
Elliot and Rabinowitz (1989) consider that the number and the sizes of crystals of newly emitted urine reflect a tendency to a lithogenesis and consider crystalluria
as a microurolithiasis.