cryptorchidism


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cryptorchidism

 [krip-tor´kid-izm]
failure of one or both of the testes to descend into the scrotum. As the unborn male child develops, the testes first appear in the abdomen at about the level of the kidneys. They develop at this site, and in approximately the seventh month of fetal life start to descend to the upper part of the groin. From there they move into the inguinal canal and then, normally, into the scrotum. In its descent, a testis may sometimes be halted in the abdomen or within the canal, becoming an undescended testis. An improperly developed testis may never leave the abdomen, and it may not produce the hormones that induce secondary sex characters. A testis lodged in the canal may well produce these secondary sex characters, but cannot produce spermatozoa. Cases in which both testes fail to descend are uncommon; usually only one is involved and the other produces sufficient numbers of spermatozoa.
Treatment. Often the undescended testis can be brought down into the scrotum by medical treatment with the gonadotropic hormone, and for physical and psychologic reasons this method is preferred. Frequently, however, surgery (called orchiopexy) is required. This operation is not particularly serious and is usually successful. It is best performed before the patient is 5 to 7 years old, since operating at a later age may involve more risk to the cells that produce spermatozoa.
 In cryptorchidism, the testis is not in the scrotum, but may be found in the inguinal canal or in the abdominal cavity. From Damjanov, 2000.

cryp·tor·chi·dism

(krip-tōr'ki-dizm),
Failure of one or both testes to descend.
Synonym(s): cryptorchism

cryptorchidism

/crypt·or·chid·ism/ (krip-tor´kid-izm) failure of one or both testes to descend into the scrotum.cryptor´chid

cryptorchidism

(krĭp-tôr′kĭ-dĭz′əm) also

cryptorchism

(-kĭz′əm)
n.
A developmental defect marked by the failure of the testes to descend into the scrotum.

crypt·or′chid n.

cryptorchidism

[kriptôr′kidiz′əm]
Etymology: Gk, kryptos, hidden, orchis, testis
a developmental defect in which one or both testicles fail to descend into the scrotum and are retained in the abdomen or inguinal canal. The testes normally migrate into the scrotal sac at birth, but normal testicular descent depends on timely and synchronous development of other embryonic structures. If spontaneous descent does not occur by the age of 1 year, hormonal injections may be given. If injections are unsuccessful, orchiopexy is usually performed before age 3. Also called cryptorchid testis, cryptorchis, undescended testis.
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Cryptorchidism

cryptorchidism

Undescended testicles A condition in which one or both testicles fail to move from the abdomen, where they develop before birth, into the scrotum; cryptorchidism uncorrected in early childhood is linked to azoospermia and ↑ testicular CA. Cf Anorchia.

cryp·tor·chism

(kript-ōr'kizm)
Failure of one or both testes to descend.
Synonym(s): cryptorchidism.

cryptorchidism

Cryptorchism, undescended testicle. The testicles develop in the abdomen and a testicle that fails to descend before puberty remains permanently sterile. Such a testicle is also liable to develop cancer.

Cryptorchidism

Occurs when a boy is born with one or both testicles in the lower abdomen rather than the scrotum. Known also as undescended testicles, it is the primary risk factor for testicular cancer.

cryptorchidism

the state of being a cryptorchid. An improperly developed testis may never leave the abdomen, and it may not produce the hormones that induce secondary sex characters. A testis lodged in the canal may well produce these secondary sex characters, but cannot produce spermatozoa. Failure of both testicles to descend is uncommon. Usually only one testis is involved and the other produces sufficient spermatozoa to render the animal fertile. Called also rig.

inherited cryptorchidism
there is some evidence that cryptorchidism can be inherited in most species.
References in periodicals archive ?
While personal history of inguinal hernia, age of father, and age of mother at childbirth were not associated with TGCT risk, cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and brother's and father's history of testicular cancer were associated with an increased TGCT risk (Table 1).
1 Midshaft-proximal 12 18 Inguinal pathology Cryptorchidism 22 28 0.
A study published in Turkish Journal found that the presence of abnormal external genitalia, abdominal testes and abnormal karyotype was associated with increased risk of not only testicular germ cell tumours but also extragonadal germ cell tumours, (12) which holds true even in this case where patient had hypospadiasis and micropenis associated with cryptorchidism.
The importance of timely diagnosis and treatment of cryptorchidism cannot be underestimated.
Changes in testis histology in cryptorchid testes are variable depending on the age of the individual at the time of orchidopexy and the position and duration of cryptorchidism.
Upon cryptorchidism induction in the first week, considerable spermatocytes lined up the germinal cell layer in the control and the treatment groups (Figure 3).
Thus, in patients with cryptorchidism, the presence of vas deferens should be evaluated during scrotal palpation and abdominal ultrasound study is also recommended to evaluate any other coexisting abnormalities such as renal agenesis.
There are many reports concerning hypospadiac cases in ruminants associated with other congenital anomalies such as atresia ani, absence of tail, hermaphrodism, and cryptorchidism [7, 9, 11-17].
Explain the anatomy and physiology of cryptorchidism (undescended tests).
Dolores Lamb, director of the Center for Reproductive Medicine at Baylor, professor and vice chair for research of urology and molecular and cellular biology at Baylor, asid cryptorchidism and hypospadias are among the most common birth defects but the causes are usually unknown.
toxin exposure, cryptorchidism, testicular torsion etc), testicular function becomes highly compromised (130, 131).