cryptococcal meningitis


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cryptococcal meningitis

Neurology An opportunistic infection of the meninges and spinal cord by Cryptococcus neoformans At-risk Pts AIDS, lymphoma, DM Clinical Severe headache, confusion, photosensitivity, blurred vision, fever, speech difficulties Management Amphotericin B plus flucytosine, then consolidation with fluconazole or itraconazole Prognosis Untreated, coma, death
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

cryptococcal meningitis

Fungal meningitis due to Cryptococcus neoformans. A rare cause of disease in healthy hosts, cryptococcal meningitis is an opportunistic infection usually seen in patients with advanced AIDS or patients taking high-dose steroids. It usually presents with gradually progressive headache and fever. The serum cryptococcal antigen test is a useful screening test. The diagnosis is established by the results of analysis and culture of cerebral spinal fluid.

Treatment

Treatment options include amphotericin B, often with flucytosine. Fluconazole and/or related antifungals are sometimes used for maintenance therapy.

See also: meningitis
Medical Dictionary, © 2009 Farlex and Partners
References in periodicals archive ?
* Cryptococcal meningitis. Infections caused by Cryptococcus neoformans are now relatively infrequent in the United States but remain a major cause of AIDS-related morbidity and mortality in the developing world.
Chang, "Cerebral infarction in chronic meningitis: a comparison of tuberculous meningitis and cryptococcal meningitis," QJM, vol.
Cryptococcal meningitis in Durban, South Africa: A comparison of clinical features, laboratory findings, and outcome for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative patients.
Parravicini, "The role of cryptococcal antigen assay in diagnosis and monitoring of cryptococcal meningitis," Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol.
The sero-prevalence of crag was high; thus screening for Cryptococcus neoformans antigen should be made a routine in ART-naive AIDS patients before initiation of ART therapy to reduce the rapid mortality from Cryptococcal meningitis.
Cryptococcal meningitis in an immunocompetent child: a case report and literature review.
The most frequently reported cases of IRIS are associated with infection due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, genital herpes, Varicella zoster, cytomegalovirus and cryptococcal meningitis following initiation of ART (4-7).
Cryptococcal meningitis can be seen in immunocompromised patients.
of patients Findings 38 (100%) Confusion 6 Confusion + seizures 7 Confusion + hemiplegia 3 Confusion + psychotic behaviour 9 Confusion + dyskinetic features 1 Confusion + cryptococcal meningitis deteriorating on treatment 1 Confusion + abnormal lumbar puncture, suspected to be tuberculous meningitis 1 Confusion + cryptococcal meningitis on lumbar puncture Table II.