In comparison to other international studies, research also suggested that combined medication positively cures the infection of H.pylori in up to 90% of individuals.19 Similarly, another study reported that combined therapy significantly reduced the mortality rate by 56% of patients 20 and can increase the single drug strength and slower the emergence of resistance.21 The combination of cryptdin
2 and ampicillin was also found as extremely effective, which indicated in vitro synergy between the two agents.22 Furthermore, as the results indicates that there is no combination of antibiotics proved as synergistic for Salmonella and Shigella.
These cells, residing in the crypts of the intestine, produce large amounts of antimicrobial peptides including cryptdin
5, lysozyme, regenerating islet derived 3-gamma (Reg III[gamma]), and angiogenin 4, which play a critical role in controlling the microbiota composition of both the small and the large intestine [15, 16].
Reduction of number of Paneth cells in [Gfi1.sup.-/-] mouse model, transgenic expression of diphtheria toxin A under the Paneth cell-specific cryptdin
2 promoter (CR2-tox176), and conditional deletion of Sox9 showed that the stem cells were coincidently decreased in number .
For instance, NOD2-dependent responses to bacterial peptidoglycan fragments can promote Paneth cells to express antimicrobial cryptdin
peptides.[sup] Intestinal symbiotic bacteria can also induce Paneth cells and intestinal mucosal epithelial cells to express regenerating islet-derived protein IIIa, which is a C-type lectin that binds to peptidoglycan to kill Gram-positive bacteria in the gut.[sup]
Yajima, "Postnatal changes in the expression of genes for cryptdins
1-6 and the role of luminal bacteria in cryptdin
gene expression in mouse small intestine," FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, vol.
Developmental regulation of cryptdin
, a corticostatin/defensin precursor mRNA in mouse small intestinal crypt epithelium.
(31) In mice, enteric [alpha]-defensin genes, named cryptdin
, are quite variable among strains at the genome level, (31,32) and the nomenclature for these genes is confusing.
Lehrer, "Secretion of type II phospholipase A2 and cryptdin
by rat small intestinal Paneth cells," Infection and Immunity, vol.
3 forms anion selective channels in cytoplasmic membranes of human embryonic kidney cells.
The mutant mice exhibited a diminished secretion of lysozyme and cryptdins
in their small bowel, which were likely responsible for the increased susceptibility to Salmonella infection.
: endogenous antibiotic peptides of small intestinal paneth cells.
The Paneth cells are located in the intestinal crypt; their function includes secretion of antimicrobial peptides (e.g., lysozyme and cryptdins
or defensins) into the villous crypt, and these are retained in the mucus layer enabling their bactericidal activity to be concentrated near the epithelium .