rhinocerotis on functional recovery by using an in vivo model of sciatic nerve crush injury. Lignosus rhinocerotis hot and cold aqueous extracts have been found to possess a broad spectrum of cytotoxic activities, immunodulatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, fibrinolytic and neuritogenic activities attributed to the fatty acids, polysaccharides, polysaccharide-protein complexes, glucans, peptides, proteases and proteins (Lau et al., 2015; Nallathamby et al., 2018).
Morus alba aqueous extract at 0.1 mg/kg improved motor and sensory functions after crush injury. Increased dosages of 1.0 and 10 mg/kg failed to show any significant recovery (Mucimapura et al., 2010).
During the third week after the crush injury, the endoneurial fibroblast-like cells were apparently decreased in number, with the disappearance of most of the endoneurial channel-like spaces.
The present study showed that differentiated endoneurial fibroblast-like cells, in the segments distal to the site of the crush injury of the sural nerve, were apparently increased.
Study data were also incomplete for serum CK (52.9% missing), phosphate (52.3%), calcium (59.7%) and magnesium (51.9%), as these are not considered routine screening tests in patients with crush injury.
We recommend that clinicians involved in the care of patients with crush injury from sjambok beating adopt the system we propose of early risk stratification using the initial VB, without the need for urine dipstick analysis or serum electrolyte analysis, based on the VB categories shown in Table 6.
Evidence of regeneration was noted by the appearance of a large number of macrophages populations (early nerve crush injury) which were swollen with the phagocytosis of degenerative debris, which strongly indicated that the nerve was still in the process of degeneration, while at Day 14 and Day 21 after operation, the population and size of the axon and myelin were increased over time (Figures 2(b) and 2(c)).
From the graph, a score of 4 (blue line) indicates the toe-spreading reflex of a normal uninjured hind limb while a score of 0 indicates an absence of reflex in any of the digits of the hind limb due to the immediate effect of sciatic nerve crush injury. Seven days after operation, the toe-spreading reflex in the control group (red line) was compared with the same reflex in the EPO-treated group (green line), the difference in the scores between these two groups was statistically significant (p < 0.05, two-tailed unpaired t-Test).
It was found that zein-based nanofiber mat failed to increase axonal density in diabetic rats exposed to crush injury. Diabetic rats subjected to crush injury and treated with zein-based nanofibers loaded with 5%, 10%, and 15% quercetin showed a significant increase in axonal density (p value < 0.01, 0.001, and 0.001, resp., compared with diabetic rats with the sciatic nerve lesion that received zein-based nanofiber).
Therefore, within the duration of our study, diabetic rats with crush injury that received quercetin failed to reach full recovery of sciatic nerve sensory function, whereas their motor functions reflected by a sciatic function index (SFI) showed full recovery.
Group 7: In this group subcutaneous injection of rice bran oil was done for 10 consecutive days after surgically-induced crush injury
in sciatic nerve and served as crush plus rice bran oil group.
The negative electrode terminal was then sutured approximately 2 mm proximal to the crush injury
site and the positive electrode terminal to connective tissue about 3 to 5 mm away from the negative terminal on the opposite side of the nerve, such that electrical current passing between the electrode terminals stimulated the regenerating axons in the nerve.