This study also cross-sectionally
explored the relationship among the predictors.
However, given the results of our analysis thus far, attrition bias in the PSID does not appear to be very severe for cross-sectionally
For individual physical symptoms, there was a clear ageing effect, with all symptoms increasing in frequency, although when examined cross-sectionally
at T6, only certain symptoms were significantly commoner in the older age groups.
This paper has used a cross-sectionally
heteroscedastic and time-wise autoregressive technique to examine the pooled suicide rates of 23 cities and counties in Taiwan from 1983 to 1993.
From the specification, it can be seen that [Mathematical Expression Omitted] and [[Rho].sub.i] are being allowed to vary from one cross-sectional unit to another and are cross-sectionally
Kristen Butcher and David Card at Princeton University found in their 1991 study little indication of an adverse wage effect of immigrants "either cross-sectionally
or within cities over time." A study by Julian Simon and several co-authors released in 1993 concluded that "there is little or no observed increase in aggregate national unemployment due to immigration." Extensive research by Robert LaLonde and Robert Topel at the University of Chicago found that "immigration has a small effect on wages but virtually all of this burden falls on immigrants themselves." In other words, the surfeit of immigrants competing for jobs as nannies or in apparel factories keeps wages down in these fields.
For example, because intentions to smoke is such a strong predictor both cross-sectionally
and longitudinally, strategies aimed at changing an adolescent's intention to smoke could influence future smoking.
We calibrate the three models cross-sectionally
, maximizing the likelihood of observed choice or incidence behavior across all store visits by the sample households during the estimation period.
He also demonstrates that such risk premia vary both cross-sectionally
with the riskiness of individual stocks and over time with financial market conditions.
Pressures in modern societies favor organizational forms that offer reliable performance (demonstrate low variance cross-sectionally
and over time) and that can account rationally for their actions (Hannan and Freeman, 1984, 1989).
When analysis is performed cross-sectionally
using either ratios or common-sized statements, care should be exercised when different accounting principles are used by various companies such as FIFO versus LIFO for inventory costing.
This allowed us to cross-sectionally
deflate the investment series by State before further aggregating to all U.S.