cross-sectional study

Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Financial, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
Related to cross-sectional study: Case Control Study, Cohort study, PubMed


a careful examination of a phenomenon; see also design.
cohort study prospective study.
cross-sectional study one employing a single point of data collection for each participant or system being studied. It is used for examining phenomena expected to remain static through the period of interest. It contrasts with a longitudinal s.
electrophysiological s's (EPS) studies from within the heart of its electrical activation and response to electrical stimuli and certain drugs. In general they include intravenous and/or intra-arterial placement of one or more electrode catheters at sites in the atria, ventricles, or coronary sinus, and sometimes the pulmonary artery or aorta. They record activity or stimulate the heart at various rates and cadences and are aids in the evaluation of electrophysiologic properties such as automaticity, conduction, and refractoriness. They also initiate and terminate tachycardias, map the sequence of activation, and aid in evaluation of patients for various forms of therapy and for the response to therapy. During these studies catheter ablation procedures, such as radio frequency ablation and electrical ablation, may be performed.
flow study uroflowmetry.
longitudinal study one in which participants, processes, or systems are studied over time, with data being collected at multiple intervals. The two main types are prospective studies and retrospective studies. It contrasts with a cross-sectional s.
pilot study a smaller version of a proposed research study, conducted to refine the methodology of the later one. It should be as similar to the proposed study as possible, using similar subjects, the same setting, and the same techniques of data collection and analysis.
prospective study an epidemiologic study in which the groups of individuals (cohorts) are selected on the bases of factors that are to be examined for possible effects on some outcome. For example, the effect of exposure to a specific risk factor on the eventual development of a particular disease can be studied. The cohorts are then followed over a period of time to determine the incidence rates of the outcomes being studied as they relate to the original factors in question. Called also cohort study.

The term prospective usually implies a cohort selected in the present and followed into the future, but this method can also be applied to existing longitudinal historical data, such as insurance or medical records. A cohort is identified and classified as to exposure to the risk factor at some date in the past and followed up to the present to determine incidence rates. This is called a historical prospective study, prospective study of past data, or retrospective cohort study.
retrospective study an epidemiologic study in which participating individuals are classified as either having some outcome (cases) or lacking it (controls); the outcome may be a specific disease, and the persons' histories are examined for specific factors that might be associated with that outcome. Cases and controls are often matched with respect to certain demographic or other variables but need not be. As compared to prospective studies, retrospective studies suffer from drawbacks: certain important statistics cannot be measured, and large biases may be introduced both in the selection of controls and in the recall of past exposure to risk factors. The advantage of the retrospective study is its small scale, usually short time for completion, and its applicability to rare diseases, which would require study of very large cohorts in prospective studies. See also prospective s.
urinary flow study uroflowmetry.
voiding pressure study simultaneous measurement of bladder contraction, urinary flow, and sphincter electromyogram.

cross-sec·tion·al stud·y

1. a study in which groups of individuals of different types are composed into one large sample and studied at only a single timepoint (for example, a survey in which all members of a given population, regardless of age, religion, gender, or geographic location, are sampled for a given characteristic or finding in one day).
2. analysis of (an) anatomic or other structure(s) by means of a series of planar sections or radiographic images through the structure(s) and the surrounding environment.
Synonym(s): synchronic study

cross-sec·tion·al stud·y

(kraws'sek'shŭn-ăl stŭd'ē)
A study in which groups of individuals of different types are composed into one large sample and studied at only a single point in time (e.g., a survey in which all voters, regardless of age, religion, gender, or geographic location, are sampled in 1 day).
Synonym(s): synchronic study.

cross-sec·tion·al stud·y

(kraws'sek-shŭn-ăl stŭd'ē)
1. Study in which groups of individuals of different types are composed into one large sample and studied at only a single timepoint.
2. Analysis of anatomic or other structure(s) by series of planar sections or radiographic images through the structure(s) and surrounding environment.
References in periodicals archive ?
A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to March 2017.
In a cross-sectional study at Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital, and Temple of Healing clinic, 271 diabetic patients underwent biothesiometry and VPT was assessed at six different sites on the sole of each foot.
Conclusion: Data from this cross-sectional study showed that dental caries and lower serum vitamin D were closely related.
A cross-sectional study of 182 multiethnic premenopausal women showed no significant association between serum 25(OH) D levels and percent breast density after adjustment for confounders (BMI, age at mammogram, Asian ethnicity, age at first birth, parity and age at menarche).13 A recent cross-sectional study conducted among both pre-and postmenopausal women reported no significant association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and percent breast density.14 In the present study BMI was inversely correlated with percent breast density.
This study is a part of larger cross-sectional study conducted in rural field practice areas of Department of Community Medicine, JNMCH, AMU, Aligarh.
Data source: A cross-sectional study in which 69 fibromyalgia patients with fibrofog symptoms of 12 months or less and 39 others with cognitive symptoms of 7-26 years duration completed a battery of 14 measures of neurocognitive functioning.
In a cross-sectional study, 216 women were selected through systematic random sampling from 10 health care centres in Iran in 2011.
His cross-sectional study found that 47 of 150 acanthosis nigricans patients (31%) were insulin resistant; acanthosis nigricans grades of 3 or 4 were more predictive of the condition.
The researchers conducted a cross-sectional study of 1,155 EVA participants with complete lipid and headache information.
The authors report that self-reported frequent exposure to SHS was associated with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in this cross-sectional study population.
The study was conducted n a multi-centre, cross-sectional study of more than 1,300 headache clinic patients.
A cross-sectional study of 6,357 women aged over 60 from seven cities used data from the Health, Well-Being and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean Study.