Our study was an observational study using a cross-sectional method
52 standard deviation units under the cross-sectional method, .
Two methods of reporting multigrade trends were used: the traditional cross-sectional method and the longitudinal method.
Missing data methods; cross-sectional methods
Much of the prior research on financial aid has employed cross-sectional methods
, which assume that the effects of aid do not vary across time.
Longitudinal and cross-sectional methods
of data analysis were used to estimate the biological half-life of pathogen-specific maternal antibodies (1).
Panel data econometric methods, widely regarded as powerful and robust methods for investigating a large range of issues (see, for example, Wooldridge (2002)), provide a potential alternative approach to cross-sectional methods
And while scholars have acknowledged that the two phenomena are parts of a wider dynamic system of variables, affecting and being affected by these variables over time, most studies have employed only a few variables using cross-sectional methods
Using such a framework, both cross-sectional and combined cross-sectional methods
are applied in the last section to the business cycles of the 1967-82 period.
Together they cover the uses of social research and the relevant theories, ethics, selecting a topic, working with sampling and measurement, using such research designs as case studies or cross-sectional methods
, conducting experimental research, using questionnaires and structured interviews and qualitative methods, observing, using available data, doing content analysis, comparing methods, applying social research, and performing qualitative and quantitative data analysis.