52 standard deviation units under the cross-sectional method, .
Two methods of reporting multigrade trends were used: the traditional cross-sectional method and the longitudinal method.
In 1993, Cyprus used the cross-sectional method
to estimate a "geological in-situ reserve" of approximately 6 million tons of sulphide mineralization grading 8.
Missing data methods; cross-sectional methods
Longitudinal and cross-sectional methods
of data analysis were used to estimate the biological half-life of pathogen-specific maternal antibodies (1).
Panel data econometric methods, widely regarded as powerful and robust methods for investigating a large range of issues (see, for example, Wooldridge (2002)), provide a potential alternative approach to cross-sectional methods.
In principle, it is possible to control for other sources of inter-industry variation in injury rates and thereby accurately identify the effect of working time using cross-sectional methods.
Using such a framework, both cross-sectional and combined cross-sectional methods are applied in the last section to the business cycles of the 1967-82 period.
In this way, comparisons can be made between the actual attrition process and the ones implied by the cross-sectional methods.
Newer and established cross-sectional methods
Together they cover the uses of social research and the relevant theories, ethics, selecting a topic, working with sampling and measurement, using such research designs as case studies or cross-sectional methods
, conducting experimental research, using questionnaires and structured interviews and qualitative methods, observing, using available data, doing content analysis, comparing methods, applying social research, and performing qualitative and quantitative data analysis.