A descriptive, cross-sectional method
was adopted and the study was conducted in the histopathology department of Rehman Medical Institute, Peshawar, Pakistan, from January to June 2017, and comprised patients with Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Our study was an observational study using a cross-sectional method
. In August 2015, the study was conducted in Brebes, Central Java, Indonesia.
The achievement gap from fourth to eighth grade increased .52 standard deviation units under the cross-sectional method, .56 standard deviation units using the cohort-dynamic method, but it decreased .04 standard deviation units under the cohort-static method.
Two methods of reporting multigrade trends were used: the traditional cross-sectional method and the longitudinal method.
Missing data methods; cross-sectional methods
Much of the prior research on financial aid has employed cross-sectional methods
, which assume that the effects of aid do not vary across time.
Longitudinal and cross-sectional methods
of data analysis were used to estimate the biological half-life of pathogen-specific maternal antibodies (1).
Panel data econometric methods, widely regarded as powerful and robust methods for investigating a large range of issues (see, for example, Wooldridge (2002)), provide a potential alternative approach to cross-sectional methods. They are able to control for (time invariant) unobserved characteristics, and are therefore not open to the criticism that these unobserved characteristics are driving an apparent association between the variables of interest.
In principle, it is possible to control for other sources of inter-industry variation in injury rates and thereby accurately identify the effect of working time using cross-sectional methods. Indeed, previous studies of workplace safety have included in the models estimated variables for a number of characteristics other than working time.
And while scholars have acknowledged that the two phenomena are parts of a wider dynamic system of variables, affecting and being affected by these variables over time, most studies have employed only a few variables using cross-sectional methods
. We address these deficiencies with a dynamic model based on a modified version of world-systems theory.
Using such a framework, both cross-sectional and combined cross-sectional methods
are applied in the last section to the business cycles of the 1967-82 period.
Together they cover the uses of social research and the relevant theories, ethics, selecting a topic, working with sampling and measurement, using such research designs as case studies or cross-sectional methods
, conducting experimental research, using questionnaires and structured interviews and qualitative methods, observing, using available data, doing content analysis, comparing methods, applying social research, and performing qualitative and quantitative data analysis.