Piglets were weighed at birth, after cross-fostering
and at weaning (20.
These will be measured using socioeconomic and familial variables in humans, but in young starlings they will be experimentally manipulated via cross-fostering
and hand-rearing siblings apart so that they experience different early histories.
experiments, in which clutches of eggs were swapped between nests, showed that the nestlings produced begging calls that matched their foster mothers, not their biological mothers, evidence that the passwords were indeed learned.
Here we report a natural heterospecific cross-fostering
experiment, which resulted from the usurpation of a House Wren (Troglodytes aedon) nest, with two recently laid eggs, by a pair of Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolar).
Veterinary surgeon Janet Brenton said: "I've never seen cross-fostering
occur between two different species.
inbred groups, cultural and genetic isolates); sub-populations such as the oldest-old; studies that utilize the extensive genome databases and genetic analyses resources that are becoming available; and animal model studies using cross-fostering
, selective breeding, inbred strains, recombinant inbred strains or specific genotypic manipulations (e.
In measuring the latter, we removed the potentially confounding effects (1) between parental quality and egg quality and (2) between increased egg production and parental condition, using a cross-fostering
protocol in which eggs were reared by control parents.
The research team led by Dr Keith Kendrick tested the strength of maternal influences by cross-fostering
males and females.
This study used a complete cross-fostering
design to study the effects of variations in social class background of biological and adopted parents on the IQ of adopted children.
To avoid the difficulties associated with inflated estimates due to maternal effects, heritabilities based on father-offspring regressions and cross-fostering
experiments were used wherever there was an option.
Some prairie falcons are in a new cross-fostering
program, raising chicks of the endangered peregrine falcon as their own.