cromolyn sodium


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cromolyn sodium

Apo-Cromolyn (CA), Gastrocrom, Nalcrom (CA) (UK), Nasalcrom, Nu-Cromolyn (CA), Solu-Crom (CA)

Pharmacologic class: Chromone derivative

Therapeutic class: Mast cell stabilizer, antiasthmatic, ophthalmic decongestant

Pregnancy risk category B

Action

Inhibits release of histamine and reacting substances of anaphylaxis from mast cells, stabilizing the cell membrane and reducing the allergic response and inflammatory reaction

Availability

Nasal solution: 40 mg/ml (5.2 mg/spray) in 13-ml container (100 sprays) or 26-ml container (200 sprays)

Ophthalmic solution: 4%

Oral solution: 100 mg/5 ml

Solution for nebulization: 10 mg/ml

Indications and dosages

Mastocytosis

Adults and children ages 13 and older: 200 mg P.O. q.i.d.

Children ages 2 to 12: 100 mg P.O. q.i.d.

Vernal keratoconjunctivitis, vernal conjunctivitis, and vernal keratitis

Adults and children ages 4 and older: One to two drops of ophthalmic solution in each eye four to six times daily at regular intervals

To prevent and relieve nasal symptoms of hay fever and other nasal allergies

Adults and children ages 2 and older: Spray once into each nostril. To prevent nasal allergy symptoms, use up to 1 week before contact with cause of allergy. To relieve nasal symptoms, repeat three to four times daily q 4 to 6 hours. If needed, may use up to six times per day. Use every day while in contact with allergen.

Prevention of acute bronchospasm

Adults and children ages 2 and older: 20 mg q.i.d. via nebulization at regular intervals or no more than 1 hour before exposure to triggering event

Management of bronchial asthma

Adults and children ages 2 and older: 20 mg via nebulization q.i.d. at regular intervals

Off-label uses

• Proctitis

• Ulcerative colitis

• Urticaria

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to drug

• Status asthmaticus

Precautions

Use cautiously in:

• renal or hepatic impairment, acute bronchospasm attacks

• pregnant or breastfeeding patients

• children younger than age 5.

Administration

• Administer oral form 30 minutes before meals and at bedtime.

• Before using nasal spray, have patient clear nasal passages by blowing nose.

• Don't expose solutions to direct sunlight.

Adverse reactions

CNS: headache, drowsiness, dizziness

EENT: nasal irritation, sneezing, epistaxis, postnasal drip (with nasal solution); stinging of eyes, lacrimation (with ophthalmic solution)

GI: nausea, diarrhea, stomachache, swollen parotid glands

GU: difficult or painful urination, urinary frequency

Musculoskeletal: myopathy

Respiratory: wheezing, cough, bronchospasm

Skin: erythema, rash, urticaria, angioedema

Other: altered taste, substernal burning, allergic reactions including anaphylaxis, serum sickness

Interactions

None significant

Patient monitoring

• Monitor pulmonary function periodically.

• Evaluate patient for signs and symptoms of overdose, including bronchospasm and difficult or painful urination.

Patient teaching with nasal form

• Teach patient how to instill nasal spray as directed.

• Tell patient that drug may cause unpleasant taste, but that rinsing mouth and performing frequent oral care may help. Also inform him that drug may cause headache.

• Advise patient to report increased sneezing; nasal burning, stinging, or irritation; sore throat; hoarseness; or nosebleed.

With oral form-

• Tell patient to take oral form 30 minutes before meals.

With ophthalmic form-

• Instruct patient to wash hands before using.

• Teach patient how to instill drops: Instruct him to tilt his head back and look up, place drops inside lower eyelid, close his eye, and roll eyeball in all directions. Tell him not to blink for about 30 seconds, and then to apply gentle pressure to inner corner of eye for 30 seconds.

• Caution patient not to let applicator tip touch eye or any other surface.

• Tell patient drug may cause temporary stinging of eye or blurred vision.

• Advise patient not to wear contact lenses during therapy.

With all forms-

• As appropriate, review all other significant adverse reactions.

cromolyn sodium

Nasalcrom®, Opticrom® ENT An anti-inflammatory delivered by nebulizer to ↓ airway hyperresponsiveness, treat allergic rhinitis, and prevent antigen-, exercise-, cold air-, hyperventilation-, SO2-provoked, early and late asthma. See Allergic rhinitis.

mast cell stabilizers

Prophylactic drugs used to treat allergic conjunctivitis, vernal conjunctivitis, giant pupillary conjunctivitis, superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis. They act by stabilizing the membranes of mast cells thus preventing the release of histamine. Common agents are sodium cromoglicate (cromolyn sodium), lodoxamide, nedocromil sodium, olopatadine hydrochloride and pemirolast potassium. See antihistamine; hypersensitivity.
References in periodicals archive ?
In contrast to the prior in vitro findings, however, our in vivo studies showed that protective effects were achieved with the mast cell stabilizer cromolyn sodium and the histamine [H.sub.1]-antagonist diphenhydramine.
Cromolyn sodium, nedocromil sodium and corticosteroids are examples of anti-inflammatory medications currently available to treat asthma.
Cromolyn sodium is most useful in controlling gastrointestinal effects of systemic mastocytosis and administration in the perioperative period is not critical (34).
Cromolyn sodium (Nasalcrom) is a nasal spray that in some people helps to prevent allergic reactions from starting.
Medications used to treat EE include topical glucocorticoids, cromolyn sodium (which blocks allergic reactions to foods), and leukotriene receptor antagonists.
In refractory cases, leukotriene receptor antagonists or oral cromolyn sodium may be considered.
RVT-1601is a novel formulation of inhaled cromolyn sodium delivered through a proprietary nebuliser device designed to yield high lung deposition and distribution, as well as related assets owned by Patara Pharma.
The company said PA101 (RVT-1601) is a novel formulation of inhaled cromolyn sodium delivered through a proprietary nebulizer device designed to yield high lung deposition and distribution.
(4) Cromolyn sodium (CS) + IIR group: cromolyn sodium was administrated via the tail vein at 25 mg/ kg 15 min prior to the IIR procedures
An ophthalmology examination showed bilateral lid swelling, diffuse conjunctival redness, and watery discharge (Figure 5), which was treated with topical antihistamines and cromolyn sodium.
Other possible treatments include topical cromolyn sodium and leukotriene antagonists.
Nutritional support, systemic glucocorticoids, azathioprine, anabolic steroids, anti-inflammatory (i.e., mesalamine), histamine-receptor antagonists, cromolyn sodium, and surgical treatment have all been used with varying degrees of success.