One of them is the highly interdisciplinary Museum of Criminal Anthropology
In chapter 3, "'Swarthy, Sun-Tanned, Villainous Looking Fellows': Tarzan of the Apes and Criminal Anthropology
," Abate situates Tarzan's prowess as a killer of humans and animals alike within Cesare Lombroso's Criminal Man and the emerging field of criminal anthropology
The author defines and classifies criminology as part of the group of subjects which study the causes, among which : criminal anthropology
, criminal psychology, criminal sociology, criminal statistics and demography.
Gibson (2002) says that criminal anthropology
promulgated the notion of race as a biological given and focused attention especially on racial differences by creating a hierarchy of superiors and inferiors, thus granting legitimacy to acts of oppression by the white regime and providing ammunition for propaganda for Italy's colonial policy in Africa (Ethiopia, Somalia, Eritrea, and later Libya).
His main focus in this part of the book is the Russian reception of Cesare Lombroso's criminal anthropology
Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909) is considered the founder of the positivist school of criminology and the father of criminal anthropology
If modern criminal anthropology
, developed after Cesare Lombroso's shifting of the criminal in the 1870s, had needed the encouragement of a precursor, this might have been it.
Pioneered by the Italian psychiatrist Cesare Lombroso, criminal anthropology
argued that the proper object of criminological investigation should be the criminal not the crime.
For critiques of disciplinary views of the history of Portuguese anthropology, see Diogo Ramada Curto, 'Contributions to a History of Criminal Anthropology
in Portugal', Portuguese Studies, 14 (1998); Ricardo Roque, Antropologia e Imperio: Fonseca Cardoso e a Expedicao a India em 1895 (Lisbon: Imprensa de Ciensias Sociais, 2001), pp.
But attempts to legislate such a uniform code had long foundered over the issue of the death penalty (which the surviving Tuscan code had rejected) and were further complicated by the rise of Lombroso and Ferri's criminal anthropology
in the 1870s and 1880s, which called the assumptions of classical criminology into question.
Despite the importance of this topic for the question of what constitutes science, for this article on the development of criminology in Latin America the point of departure is the positivist science known first as criminal anthropology
and later as criminology, which was founded in Italy by Cesare Lombroso, a doctor of medicine.
He uses Foucault to highlight connections between the oppressive potential of Lavater's pseudo-science as an instrument of classification and control and the evolving techniques of nineteenth-century criminology, particularly criminal anthropology
and the archives of criminal photography.