cretinism


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cretinism

 [kre´tĭ-nizm]
arrested physical and mental development with dystrophy of bones and soft tissues, due to congenital lack of thyroid gland secretion from hypofunction or absence of the gland. Affected children have a large head, short limbs, puffy eyes, coarse hair, a round abdomen, a thick and protruding tongue with drooling, excessively dry skin, lack of coordination, and mental retardation. Thyroid deficiency that is acquired or seen in adults is called myxedema. Administration of thyroid hormone medication, which must be continued for life, can result in normal growth and mental development of these children. If untreated, however, they will become permanently dwarfed, probably mentally retarded, and sterile.

cre·tin·ism

(kreh'tin-izm),

cretinism

/cre·tin·ism/ (kre´tin-izm) arrested physical and mental development with dystrophy of bones and soft tissues, due to congenital lack of thyroid secretion.
athyrotic cretinism  cretinism due to thyroid aplasia or destruction of the thyroid of the fetus in utero.
endemic cretinism  a form occurring in regions of severe endemic goiter, marked by deaf-mutism, spasticity, and motor dysfunction in addition to, or instead of, the usual manifestations of cretinism.
sporadic goitrous cretinism  a genetic disorder in which enlargement of the thyroid gland is associated with deficient circulating thyroid hormone.

cretinism

(krēt′n-ĭz′əm)
n.
A congenital condition caused by a deficiency of thyroid hormone during prenatal development and characterized by small stature, intellectual disability, dystrophy of the bones, and a low basal metabolism.

cretinism

[krē′təniz′əm]
Etymology: Fr, cretin, idiot
a congenital condition characterized by severe hypothyroidism and often associated with other endocrine abnormalities. Myxedema is the acquired form of hypothyroidism. Typical signs of cretinism include dwarfism, mental deficiency, puffy facial features, dry skin, large tongue, umbilical hernia, and muscular incoordination. The disorder occurs usually in areas where the diet is deficient in iodine and where goiter is common. Early treatment with thyroid hormone generally promotes normal physical growth but may not prevent mental retardation. The use of iodized salt dramatically reduces the incidence of cretinism in a population. The condition is rare in the United States, but in some areas, including parts of Ecuador, the Himalayas, and Zaire, more than 5% of the people are affected. See also familial cretinism. cretin, n., cretinous, adj.

cre·tin·ism

(kret'in-izm)
Obsolete term for congenital hypothyroidism.
See also: infantile hypothyroidism

cretinism

A condition caused by thyroid underaction from severe iodine deficiency early in life. It features dwarfism, mental retardation, dry skin, a large tongue and a puffy face. Cretinism occurs mainly in regions remote from the sea. Iodization of table salt and early screening of babies has largely eliminated the condition from such regions.

Cretinism

Severe hypothyroidism that is present at birth and characterized by severe mental retardation.

cre·tin·ism

(kret'in-izm)
Obsolete term for congenital hypothyroidism. This offensive term should be avoided.

cretinism (krē´tənizəm) (congenital hypothyroidism),

cretinism

arrested physical and mental development with dystrophy of bones and soft tissues, resulting in disproportionate dwarfism. Due to congenital or early-onset hypothyroidism. Seen in foals and possibly is an unrecognized cause of neonatal deaths in other species.
References in periodicals archive ?
Presented with the evidence on fibrocystic disease and on breast cancer, it is reasonable to hypothesize that fibrocystic disease of the breast and breast cancer may, like goiter and cretinism, be iodine-deficiency disorders.
Goitre is usually seen with iodine intakes of less than 50 [micro]g/day and cretinism can occur with intakes of less than 30 [micro]g/day in the mother; (12) both may be exacerbated by coexisting selenium deficiency and/or consumption of goitregens.
Cretinism is the most extreme manifestation of IDD.
Etiologic classification of primary hypothyroidism (a) Autoimmune Hashimoto thyroiditis; post-Graves disease; postpartum Infectious acute or subacute viral thyroiditis Destructive neck irradiation; postoperative; radioiodine therapy; infiltrative conditions Drug related PTU; methimazole; lithium; amiodarone; iodides; iodine deficiency Congenital agenesis; enzymatic deficiencies; TSH resistance; endemic cretinism Idiopathic (a) PTU, propylthiouracil; TSH, thyroid-stimulating hormone.
Victor Horsley's 1890 discovery that if you injected or fed children stunted in their development by cretinism with the thyroid of a sheep they would grow and develop epitomizes a radical change in perception.
But the truth was that the Dewhurst was being staged in front of 5,000-6,000 people, and while some locals might have liked to keep it that way, it is commercial cretinism to stage an event of such significance before the midweek few rather than the weekend many.
He told Melchor Fern[acute{a}]ndez Almagro that he had been a victim of "bad faith," of "rotten people and cretinism.
In the 1850s, French psychiatrist Benedict-Augustin Morel developed the theory of degeneration to explain cretinism.
to die within the first month of life, and it can cause cretinism in
Today we take iodized salt for granted, as do the residents of the developed countries of the world, but the World Health Organization estimates that as many as 200 million persons in underdeveloped countries are suffering from iodine deficient goiters, with cretinism attendant in many children in these areas.
Severe fetal iodine deficiency can cause cretinism, a condition that involves severe mental retardation and a stunted physique.
China's public health ministry estimates there are more than 10 million cases of mental retardation in the country - including hundreds of thousands with the overt handicaps of cretinism - resulting from iodine shortages during brain development.