Surface morphology of platinum indicates the crater formation
due to intense beam and particles splashed out in outward direction from ablated part of the material (figure 1c).
100V, the thermal sputtering, crater formation
and cracking of surface was observed while at higher potential of 300V, energetic ions burnt the surface and ions were dragged far away on the surface.
Numerical simulations of crater formation
on Mars (Senft and Stewart 2008) suggests that variations in morphometry of shallow craters may be explained by modification of crater excavation and collapse processes by the presence of ice overlying target rock.
In general, calculations involving the crater size will provide only a minimum energy of crater formation
In general, we know that the rate of crater formation
in the Moon's first half-billion years was very high and that the rate quickly declined afterwards, with bumps or spikes over the last 3 to 4 billion years.
Water does not cause craters by itself, but can be a carrier for any oil in the system, thereby aiding in crater formation
, usually on an irregular basis.
Indeed, if we leave aside Robert Hooke's 'bubble' theory of crater formation
a century or so earlier, Herschel might well be regarded as the first 'British' selenographer to argue for a volcanic theory of crater formation
--a view that, as we shall see, came to dominate and shape nearly all later British thinking about the nature of the Moon.
Because the procedure to determine the rates of crater formation
has been previously described (Kauffman 2011; Kauffman and Wolf 2012), an example of the weight loss (measured with an analytical balance) versus exposure time plots is shown in Figure 2 for polystyrene foam exposed to 1000-11,000 [micro]W/c[m.
This information will help researchers understand crater formation
and study other uncharted areas of the moon.
com/scienceworld to have your students simulate a volcanic eruption and crater formation
Observations at terrestrial impact structures: Their utility in constraining crater formation
The model covers two types of impact damage: severe damage involving crater formation
and extruded lips during impact, and milder damage resulting in plastic deformation of the surface.