External examination of the fetus revealed anencephaly with craniorachischisis totalis (Figure 3(a)), fused lower limbs (Figure 3(a)), nine toes with a fused bilateral thumb (Figure 3(a)), absence of the right upper limb (Figure 3(c)) and external genitalia, and imperforate anus, almost coinciding with the observation on the 3D sonographic rendering images.
Palacios, "Craniorachischisis totalis and sirenomelia," American Journal of Medical Genetics, vol.
Craniorachischisis and encephalocoele have the highest rate of syndromic association, anencephaly and high spina bifida have intermediate rates, and caudal spina bifida has the lowest rate .
Failure of closure 1 leads to craniorachischisis (Figure 2(b)); failure of closures 2 and/or 3 causes exencephaly and/or anencephaly, respectively (Figure 2(c)), while failure of neurulation to progress from the site of closure 1 caudally along the spinal axis leads to spina bifida aperta (Figure 2(d)).
The most prevalent are spina bifida and anencephaly and also include encephalocele, craniorachischisis
, and iniencephaly (Kondo, Kamihira, & Ozawa, 2009).
(1,2,3,4) Sirenomelia with Craniorachischisis
Totalis (CT) is a rare fetal malformation.
Prenatal diagnosis of pentalogy of cantrell with craniorachischisis
by three-dimensional ultrasonography in the first trimester.
An apparent teratogenic effect was associated with both ionic liquids, with only the offspring of treated mice exhibiting certain uncommon morphological defects, such as craniorachischisis
, ectopia cordis, and ablepharia.
The craniorachischisis (contiguous opening of brain and spinal column; included in anencephaly) rate in the border counties was 0.5.
In addition, the overall Texas-Mexico border rate for craniorachischisis was 0.5, a rate significantly higher (p=0.048) than the rate for this defect in the metropolitan Atlanta area (0.1) .
The brainstem in anencephaly can display a spectrum of involvement anywhere from relatively normal to totally absent, with the congenital defect extending all the way into the spinal canal (craniorachischisis