In the author's words "the skull [became] the founding and central document of not just phrenology and craniometry
but psychology and anthropology and criminology and psychiatry.
In this sense, as Schiebinger indicates, skull size or craniometry
as an index of relative intelligence and racial difference simply were displaced by IQ tests and the science of interpreting these scores in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
race is not just a conception; it is also a perception." (39) One must not underestimate, then, the potency of the confluence of factors that informed the milieu in which Ella Deloria and Zora Neale Hurston worked: "Political debates over slavery, naturalization law, and immigration drew on the sciences of anthropology and craniometry
, but these bodies of knowledge had arisen in answer to questions about peoplehood generated by the politics of exploration, expansion, colonialism, slavery, and republicanism in the first place." (40) In his 1904 "The History of Anthropology," Franz Boas acknowledges that scientific approaches to classifying humanity stemmed from "passions that were aroused by the practical and ethical aspects of the slavery question." (41)
, the leading numerical science of biological determinism, was replaced by molecular anthropology, which used genetic evidence to map human lineages through genetic markers.
that gave us figures like the "Hottentot Venus"; craniometry
and its concepts of inferior races; Lombroso's famous "findings" about the physical stigmata of criminality; scholarly studies that underwrote the eugenics movement and the Holocaust; The Bell Curve.
This allows him to identify his own interests in such things as craniometry
and landscape painting as interests that are not merely brought to Melville's texts, but are, at least in part, found there.
Through this redefinition, the "Indian Question" was discursively linked to the "Slavery Question." At the same time that the European-American frontier was being pushed westward, a new and distinctively American "science" of craniometry
was developing an "objective" method for differentiating among races (see Jeffries 156).
And as Stephen Jay Gould wrote in 1973 during another periodic flare-up of these old arguments, "What craniometry
was to the nineteenth century, intelligence testing has been to the twentieth." The use of I.Q.
The practice of craniometry
in the nineteenth century (Gould, Ever Since Darwin 243f.
is also employed in the measurement of cranial features in order to classify people according to race, criminal temperament, intelligence, and so forth.
In the nineteenth century Italian anthropologist Cesare Lombroso, scorned by Harvard University biologist Stephen Jay Gould for his support of the pseudoscience of craniometry
, was an early advocate of eugenics.
The first satire is on the objective science model (and here Sandra Harding gives us a useful roadmap); the second is on the counter-science and counter-knowledge that is in opposition to "objective science." Reason itself is the target of satire in Ghosh's first novel The Circle of Reason through the faith that one of the protagonists, Balaram, places in phrenology and craniometry
in the first half and through the scientific socialism of his nephew, Alu, in the second half.