Douglass's reclamation of phrenology is striking, especially given the dose proximity between phrenology and craniology
. Indeed, the "soft science" of head bumps and the "hard science" of skulls often overlapped.
For Douglas, craniology
offered little about the human state, and it was not until the 1890s that anthropological scholars began sorting humans by language and cultural context, not by skull shape and size.
Wishing to remove herself from an embarrassing situation, the distraught Linda tries to phones Allan's friend, Geoffrey Fisher (John Pankow), a researcher in craniology
, who is absent from his office.
Bertillon pointed out that his methods were based on Quetelet's binomial curve and also identified his activities with those of Paul Broca, who had steered anthropology in a medical direction which made use of quantification with his statistical craniology
Racism and anti-Semitism also permeated biology and `racial science' textbooks which aimed to point out to children the distinctions between the `Aryan' race and `inferior' races, for example, by means of craniology
. There were also readers, such as The Poisonous Mushroom (1938), in which a whole array of anti-Semitic imagery was used.
For more see Stephen Jay Gould, "Measuring Heads: Paul Broca the Heyday of Craniology
," in The Mismeasure of Man, (New York, 1981), 73-112; Anne Harrington, Medicine, Mind, and the Double Brain: A Study in Nineteenth-Century Thought (Princeton, 1987), 87-90.
At a juncture when craniology
was losing credibility, field anthropometry 'in the living' fed on new hopes for solving the enigmas of racial typology.
Faced with this situation, physical anthropology can use mutually supporting data from craniology
, serology, odontology, or dermatology to affirm the physical unity of the nation.
Marlow's pre-voyage head measurements are statistics for an ominous craniology
which itself was predicated on the pseudo-sciences of eugenics and craniology
that saw their major development during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.