Moreover, it had two advantages: first, the coordinate system could be defined easily during the operation because the scalp covering the zygomatic arch, FPZ, SMC, and the mastoid is thin enough to palpate points A, B, and C; second, this positioning system does not need recognition of the cranial sutures
(the lambdoidal, squamosal, and parietomastoid sutures) which should be identified for using the traditional method to locate the IMTS.
The work of Todd during the 1920s provided anthropologists with a framework for estimating age of death from both the cranial sutures
and the pubic symphysis.
blainvillei and the fusion (or closure) pattern of cranial sutures
, as well as to determine if the species shows directional asymmetry in suture closure.
Adult ages can be estimated by several methods, including the degree and location of cranial suture
closure (Todd & Lyon, 1924, 1925a, b, c; Meindl & Lovejoy, 1985; Figures 1 [I, C] and 4), the degree of erosion of the pubic symphysis (Figures 1 [I, D] and 5), and the amount of osteophytic lipping of the vertebral bodies (Rothschild & Martin, 1993; Figures 1 [I, E] and 6).
In its classic form, patients experience a premature closure of the cranial sutures
, which leads to brachycephaly, proptosis, a small maxilla, and anomalies of the external and middle ear.
He said that cranial sutures
only calcify before death under pathological circumstances.
were visible on several skull projections.
This shift is already evident in Massa's Introductory Book of Anatomy (1536) where he discussed cranial sutures
on the basis of "the heads of dead people in cemeteries.
bottae in a restricted area for many years and have correlated the closure of cranial sutures
, including the basisphenoid, with known-aged individuals (Smith and Patton, 1980; Daly and Patton, 1986; Patton and Brylski, 1987).
Minor anatomical features that mainly evolved randomly, such as tiny bones on the skull formed by cranial sutures
, provide a better comparison for groups living in different parts of the world, he asserts.
Prior to closure of the cranial sutures
and obliteration of the fontanelle, hydrocephalus results in disproportionate head growth.
hoffmanni, based on the simplicity of cranial sutures
and the lack of their closure/fusion (Figs.