As cases and controls within any combination of covariates
are set to have equal frequency, then any subset of these combinations including the subset with just one covariate
will occur with equal frequency.
The geology map was also used as a covariate
input in the predictive models.
Geometric means of the urinary arsenic concentrations, dilution metrics, BMI, and waist-to-height ratio across covariate
groups are presented in Table 2.
We therefore removed elevation from further analysis because this covariate
was felt to be redundant given that areas of dense vegetative cover are typically restricted to higher elevations throughout our study area.
Objective--To determine the pharmacokinetics of voriconazole administered PO with or without food to red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and whether any observed variability could be explained by measured covariates
to inform dose adjustments.
analysis of body mass index (BMI) and the variables.
2013) remarked that the addition of covariate
would improve model quality criteria for both missing and non-missing repeated measures data.
The distance of each scat detection and covariate
record from the start of each transect was calculated using ArcMap10.
This showed slight differences with the multitype Strauss model, as the geomorphology now more stands out as the most explaining covariate
, besides the x- and y-coordinates.
Boulder size was included as a continuous covariate
, with the factors Position on boulder, Location, and Site, in a univariate PERMANOVA testing the hypothesis that cover is greater at boulder edges.
84, the covariate
had a significant effect ( P < 0.
Although not collected for application to a specific sightability model, these covariate
data allowed us to apply existing sightability models retrospectively.