Generally, the standard deviation in growth of a country will fall if some source of variation is removed;

covariance between the growth rates of two countries will fall at the same time if some of the variation that is being removed is common variation.

The

covariance between two population total estimators is defined by

Factor

Covariance Invariance and Error Variance Invariance

Using the distribution theory relating to GMM estimates, the joint distribution of univariate test statistics is derived and, by allowing for the

covariance between test statistics, a multivariate test of normality is conducted.

Since equation (1) holds for any positive integer n, Equation (3) must hold for any number of assets as well once the expected rate of return and their

covariance existent or being given.

On the other hand, synchronization of interest rates is found to have a positive effect on all three

covariance terms, the

covariance of exchange rates and interest rate differentials, the

covariance of exchange rates and relative movements in FX reserves, and the

covariance of interest rate differentials and relative movements in FX reserves.

This indicates that the running simple animal model in which only direct additive genetic effect is taken into account, will lead to overestimation of the estimated direct heritability value; secondly, as shown in Table 3, consideration of

covariance of maternal and direct additive genetic effect in the model resulted in a significant increase in the estimated value of log likelihood.

When trying to outline the work's rationale, the most evident rhetorical relationship has been the

covariance causation, by which the authors have defended the necessity for a useful treatise and have offered, as a result, the motives for such dissertations.

According to this formula, the risk premium on any asset is a weighted average of two conditional

covariances, the consumption

covariance [[sigma].

This leads to a number of about 5000 daily observations within the

covariance time series.

To enable a comparison of the properties of the estimates from an EM and a SM, it is helpful to partition the expected values of the parameter estimates and their

covariance matrix from the EM as follows:

The structure underlying the responses on the AVL scale was evaluated using several techniques that are available through

covariance structural modeling and latent variable modeling (Muthen, 2002; Raykov & Marcoulides, 2006).