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in f-element complexes," Coordination Chemistry Reviews, vol.
The degree of covalency
or ionicity in a bond involving a metal cation is characterised by the Misono softness parameter derived from their ionisation and ionic potentials (see Rengasamy and Sumner 1998, for more details).
The electronic parameter values such as the Racah interelectronic repulsion parameter (Br), ligand field splitting energy (10Dq), covalency factor ([beta]), and ligand field stabilization energy (LFSE)  have been calculated by using band-fitting equation .
Table 2: Ligand field, Sinha, metal-ligand covalency percent, and covalency angular overlap parameters of Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexes.
This is less than one, suggesting partial covalency
in the metal ligand bond.
The octahedral geometry was further supported by the values of ligand field parameters, such as the Racah interelectronic repulsion parameter (B'), ligand field splitting energy (10 Dq), covalency
factor ([beta]), and ligand field stabilization energy (LFSE) .