They are vertically placed halfway between two adjacent waveguides and used to weaken the mutual coupling phase
between two waveguides to improve impedance matching at large scan angles.
The GEO SAR imaging processing must consider the spatial variance of slant range history and the compensation of two-dimensional coupling phase
in frequency domain under long synthetic aperture time [28-31].
RAPD markers UBC180.328 and OPR06.268 were selected for conversion to SCAR markers on the basis of their significant associations with blue mold resistance and for the ease at which the amplified bands could be purified from agarose gels.
Figure 4(b) shows the amount of beam to array coupling phase
The information obtained and the resolving power of the analysis was enhanced by conducting the test in the coupling phase
and advancing to the [F.sub.3] generation.
griseola is controlled by a single dominant gene that is linked in coupling phase
with random amplified polymorphic DNA marker OPE-04 at 5.8 cM (Ferreira et al., 2000).
Linkage estimates were made by LINKEM (Vowden et al., 1995) or the square root method where the double recessive class was used to estimate non-crossover gametes (coupling phase
) and linkage is estimated by the following formula: linkage estimate = 1 - 2 [(frequency of double recessives).sup.1/2.
The tight coupling phase
linkage between a1 (149.0) and sh2 (149.2) on the long arm of chromosome 3 suggests that al was concurrently introgressed with sh2 into the recurrent parent.
Map orders were determined by the "order" command for coupling phase
markers and the "compare" command for repulsion phase markers following three point analysis.
If it can be assumed that all loci that affect differences between the parent and the substitution line are either unlinked or in coupling phase
, then for two linked loci, i and j, P([a.sub.i] [intersection] [a.sub.j]) [is greater than] P([a.sub.i])P([a.sub.j]).
All seven genetic combinations were in coupling phase
and indicated close linkage of the two loci.