It is the ratio of the number of coupling factors
in W(i, j) larger than 0.
This allows for card-to-reader communication at coupling factors
as much as one order of magnitude lower than is possible with the passive load modulation (PLM) used by contactless cards.
Similar kind of coupling factors
was also reported by Drioli et al.
The use of an AS3922 AFE provides for tag-to-reader communication at coupling factors
one order of magnitude lower than is possible using conventional methods.
In a general planar circuit, coupling factors
are mainly decided by the horizontal distance between resonators.
In addition to this, since the coupling factors
and array distribution are known, a prediction of the radiation pattern can also be calculated from the equivalent array of cable-fed slots.
Because the method neglects edge effects from the true, finite size of an array, the results are approximations of far-field patterns and element-to-element coupling factors
i) Electric and magnetic coupling factors
have been calculated using Ansoft HFSS-13 for 176 points within the variation range of the modeling parameters, i.
, rise time, emissions and susceptibility are phrases that must be understood with confidence.
In addition, for high power applications, units can be provided with coupling factors
up to 60dB from lower frequencies (1GHz) to mmwave frequencies (26.
However, other Xinger II models covering other frequency ranges and coupling factors
are also available down to 800 MHz.
A significant reorientation of domains is achieved during polarization of single crystal materials, resulting in higher electromechanical coupling factors
(applied electrical energy is converted into mechanical or acoustic energy) of 90% or more, as compared to 70% for polarized conventional piezoceramics.