Starvation causes the hepatic glycogen stores to deplete and ketogenesis to take place in the liver, decreased insulin sensitivity and increased production of counterregulatory hormones
such as glucagon, cortisol, and epinephrine.
Impaired responses of several counterregulatory hormones were also observed during severe hypoglycemia in malnourished rats (LEON-QUINTO et al.
The insulin-antagonistic effect of the counterregulatory hormones.
Amylin (a pancreatic polypeptide), the incretins (glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1] and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide [GIP]), and other glucose counterregulatory hormones
(epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol, and growth hormone) are part of this redundant and complex neuroendocrine network that contributes to maintaining this balance.
Also, algorithms linking the sensor with the delivery system must account for other physiologic factors that contribute to glucose homeostasis, such as incretins, free fatty acids, and counterregulatory hormones
Moreover, algorithms linking the sensor with the delivery system must also account for all the other physiologic factors that contribute to glucose homeostasis, such as incretins, free fatty acids, and counterregulatory hormones
An increase in counterregulatory hormones, such as glucagons, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and growth hormone, results in increased hepatic glucose production and decreased peripheral glucose uptake, subsequently inducing a hyperglycemic state (Montori, Bistrian, & McMahon, 2002).
It is suggested that elderly people mount an inadequate response to the insulin resistance of critical illness, which is produced by the actions of increased counterregulatory hormones and cytokines (McCowen et al.
Regular insulin was added to cover the period before the onset of a postmeal surge of endogenous insulin induced by sulfonylurea, as well as to prevent morning hyperglycemia ("dawn phenomenon"), which occurs as a result of a rise on counterregulatory hormones
, ie, cortisol and growth hormone.
Sherwin and coworkers [21,22] showed that the secretion of counterregulatory hormones
, epinephrine and glucagon, is influenced by neurons in the VMN.
are lower in patients undergoing general anesthesia
Anaerobic exercise, such as sprinting, involves the release of counterregulatory hormones
(cortisol and epinephrine) that can sharply increase glucose release from the liver.