Impaired responses of several counterregulatory hormones
were also observed during severe hypoglycemia in malnourished rats (LEON-QUINTO et al., 1997).
Sherwin, "Influence of counterregulatory hormones
, independently of hypoglycaemia, on cognitive function, warning symptoms and glucose kinetics," Clinical Science, vol.
It is suggested that elderly people mount an inadequate response to the insulin resistance of critical illness, which is produced by the actions of increased counterregulatory hormones
and cytokines (McCowen et al., 2001).
Together with their extrahepatic actions, the counterregulatory hormones
tend to increase the blood glucose level, while the actions of insulin on the liver and other tissues are hypoglycaemic.
Moreover, algorithms linking the sensor with the delivery system must also account for all the other physiologic factors that contribute to glucose homeostasis, such as incretins, free fatty acids, and counterregulatory hormones
Anaerobic exercise, such as sprinting, involves the release of counterregulatory hormones
(cortisol and epinephrine) that can sharply increase glucose release from the liver.