4-n-NP), diadzein (Dai), genistein (Gen), kaempferol (Kaem), apigenin (Api), coumestrol
(Coum), endosulfan (Endo), kepone (Kep), and 1-bromopropane (1-BP) were obtained from the Midwest Research Institute (Kansas City, MO) through a contract with the National Toxicology Program and are previously described (Li et al.
According to their chemical structure, the flavonoids can be subdivided in (i) flavones, such as apigenin (bilberry, raspberry, strawberry, plum, cherry, blackberry, red pepper, and tomato skin) , (ii) flavonols that include quercitin (red onions, tea, wine, apples, cranberries, buckwheat, and beans) , (iii) isoflavones, including genistein (soy, legumes) and coumestrol
(soy, red clover), also known as phytoestrogens , and (iv) flavanols that include catechins and epicatechin (tea, apple juice, wine, and cocoa) .
has neuroprotective effects before and after global cerebral ischemia in female rats.
There are reports stating the adipolysis by phytoconstituents which include flavonoids like genistein, diadzein, coumestrol
and zearalenone (Kanclulska et al.
Flavonoids produced by leguminous plants, such as daidzein, genistein and coumestrol
, stimulate spore germination and mycorrhizal colonization (ANTUNES et al.
One in particular, the polyphenol coumestrol
, was found to help reduce risk of stomach cancer when consumed daily, by eating peas and other legumes, for example (International Journal of Cancer, 2009).
Phytoestrogenic compounds in alfalfa sprout (Medicago sativa) beyond coumestrol
The three most estrogenic phytoestrogens are genistein, coumestrol
(a coumestan) and equol.
The phytoestrogens examined included soya isoflavones, lignans and enterolignans including equol and coumestrol
into the analysis.
Da mesma forma, o uso do fitoestrogeno coumestrol
tambem e capaz de bloquear a expressao genica de GnRH em linhagem celular GT1, efeito que e suprimido pela adicao de antagonista ER P (BOWE et al.
5) 8-PN has a greater affinity for estrogenic receptors compared with coumestrol
from red clover (Trifolium pretense L.
Neonatal exposure to coumestrol
, a phytoestrogen, does not alter spermatogenic potential in rats.