Relation of urinary cotinine
concentrations to cigarette smoking and to exposure to other people's smoke.
For detection of SP-D and cotinine
in plasma, enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) was carried out using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent kit (Glory Science, Del Rio, TX78840, USA) in the UHS Laboratory of Physiology and Cell Biology, Lahore.
Second, serum cotinine
levels reflect recent exposure; thus, exposure misclassification might have occurred.
A urine cotinine
threshold value (ng/mL) below 10 was considered 'no exposure,' a value of 10-500 was considered as 'passive smoker,' and a value above 500 was considered as 'active smoker.' A urine cotinine/creatinine ratio of 30 and below was considered as 'no exposure' and a value above 30 was considered as 'passive smoker' (17, 18).
The amount of cotinine
in the saliva of participants was measured using the NicAlert saliva nicotine test, purchased from Craig Medical Distribution Inc., CA, USA.
Because of the slow elimination of cotinine
, several CM smoking programs have initially reinforced abstinence using daily breath CO monitoring and then transitioned to less frequent monitoring with cotinine
measures (e.g., Dunn et al, 2008; 2010; Heil et al., 2008; Higgins et al., 2004; 2007; 2010).
adult ([greater than or equal to] 18 y old)], sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status (current, former, never), and cotinine
level [10 ng/mL cut point; a threshold that has been associated with active smoking (Pirkle et al.
Researchers used specially designed hand wipes to extract nicotine from the hands of participating children and took saliva samples to look for corresponding levels of cotinine
. All of the children had detectible nicotine levels on their hands and all but one had detectable cotinine
creatinine ratio (CCR) of each sample was calculated from the equation CCR = urinary cotinine
(ng/ml)/urinary creatinine (ng/mg).
In all subjects, concentrations of cotinine
in saliva and copper in serum were assessed to determine whether the woman was exposed (passive or active) to tobacco smoke.
In the 1980s, children had an average of 0.96nl/ml of cotinine
in their saliva, while in 1998 this had reduced to 0.52nl/ml.