Pain on palpation of the thoracic spinous (21), thoracic facet and costotransverse
joints may also be present (1).
If this is in fact an incision from a lithic blade, it is likely to have originated either from a cut through the costotransverse
ligament or from a procedure where the vertebral attachments of the tendons of the back muscles (e.
The roots are connected lateral to the foramen by an intertubercular lamella of bone known as the costotransverse
4) and facet joints of the thoracic spine, and costovertebral and costotransverse
joints' that causes an exaggerated kyphosis with decreased chest expansion during inhalation and increased susceptibility to respiratory tract infections.
Loss of resistance was used to identify the paravertebral space as the needle passed through the costotransverse
After emerging from the transverse process of the axis (C2), the vertebral artery (VA) flexes posteriorly and laterally towards the atlas (C1) costotransverse
foramen, forming the suboccipital segment, which contours the posterior arch of C (15).
The paravertebral space (PVS) is a wedge shaped compartment, bordered above and below by the heads and necks of adjoining ribs, posteriorly by the superior costotransverse
ligament, medially it communicates with the epidural (extradural) space through the intervertebral foramen and laterally its apex leads into the intercostal space (Figure 1).
The posterior rib attachments connect at the costovertebral and costotransverse
Due to the contour of the thoracic laminae and general orientation of the articular processes the zygapophysial joints appear to lie flat, close to the spinous processes with the prominent costotransverse
joints lying more laterally (Figure 1).
Two joints potentially implicated in the development of stress fractures are the costovertebral and costotransverse
It results due to straining of ligaments of costovertebral and costotransverse
joints by rib retraction.
Prone posterior-anterior compression over the costotransverse
joints was unremarkable.