sup] PD-1, as a negative costimulatory molecule
, binds to its ligand programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) to deliver an inhibitory signal that restrains the activation, proliferation, and effector functions of immune cells.
2 (CD86) , which is expressed on T cells and is known as the most basic costimulatory molecule
Other candidates for the permeability factor are cardiotrophin-like cytokine factor-1 (CLCF-1)  and autoantibodies against the costimulatory molecule
DC maturation is critical for inducing immune responses and can be characterized by cellular morphology and selected costimulatory molecule
expression, such as that of CD86, CD83, CD80, CD40, and MHC I and II.
After careful consideration, these studies indicate that the choice of costimulatory molecules
affects the therapeutic response, but it remains unclear whether any costimulatory molecule
is superior to another [40, 41].
mice at baseline and suggested that low levels of alveolar macrophage costimulatory molecule
expression are maintained at least in part by endogenous IL-10 activity.
Remission of proliferative lupus nephritis following B cell depletion therapy is preceded by down-regulation of the T cell costimulatory molecule
CD40 ligand: An open-label trial.
In contrast, costimulatory molecule
expression appeared not to be different between mature hypoxic or normoxic DCs .
As shown in Figure 2, clustering of CR1 by the C3blike ligand dose-dependently inhibited the BCR-induced upregulation of the activation marker, CD69 (Figure 2(a)), and the costimulatory molecule
, CD40 (Figure 2(d)), on B cells of healthy individuals.
CV301 is a poxvirus-based prime/boost vaccine that incorporates a modified version of vaccinia (MVA-BN, a proprietary technology of Bavarian Nordic) as a priming dose, followed by multiple fowlpox boosts, and encodes the TRICOM costimulatory molecules
Expression of B7-1 costimulatory molecules
in patients with multibacillary leprosy and reactional states.