More broadly, the cosmopolitan duty argument is frequently made in
argument is motivated by, and is a cover for, cosmopolitan duty
language about the consumers of foreign goods - politically essential to radical protectionism - cannot peacefully coexist with a cosmopolitan
social regime that tolerates the consumption of unpopular cultural goods or minority lifestyles.
But this clashes terribly with the liberal concept of autonomy that is embodied in Isaiah Berlin's idea of negative liberty -- the kind of Do Your Own Thing and Follow Your Bliss liberty that John Stuart Mill made famous in his essay On Liberty (1859), and certainly a vitally important part of the liberal tradition to which cosmopolitans subscribe.
The rational cosmopolitan, believing firmly that he and his fellow rational cosmopolitans possess reason such that no reasonable person would disagree with them, and insisting that their own values are the truly universal ones, is thereby armed to do battle against the obscurantism of those who are not equally enlightened -- and this means, in actual practice, against the values of those ordinary people who wish to pass those values on to their own children.
However, a cosmopolitan in the philosophical and ethical sense has certain attributes.
The greatest theorist of enlightened cosmopolitanism was Kant, whose views on universal law influenced modern cosmopolitan theory as well as modern ethics and humanism.
A comprehensive history that begins with the Gold Rush, Cosmopolitans
illuminates the events and personalities that shaped the Bay Area's Jewish and civic communities in chronological and thematic chapters.
For many of the cosmopolitans
, para-church organizations satisfy their needs for fellowship and spiritual support.
I've had many Cosmopolitans
sent across to me in bars, but I always think, God, if I could get this in a bottle, I could clean so much stuff at home.
Those old-school, hard-core cosmopolitans
demanded a lot from our sympathetic imaginations in getting us to feel the pain of distant others and from our wallets in suggesting that our moral and political duties required very substantial financial commitments to alleviate that distant pain.
Defending a cosmopolitan
approach to global political theory against its three main rivals--realism, nationalism, and the society-of-states tradition--Simon Caney discusses six topics, each in a separate chapter, on which these approaches diverge: the existence of universal moral values, civil and political human rights, universal principles of distributive justice, the design of the global institutional order, just war theory, and humanitarian intervention.