bulbar palsy, corticobulbar
tract, or myelography (Federative International Programme on Anatomical Terminologies, 2017).
Harris et al., "Characterization of corticobulbar
pharyngeal neurophysiology in dysphagic patients with Parkinson's disease," Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol.
Hemiplegia is associated with a reduced number of functional corticospinal and corticobulbar
fibers to the spinal and brainstem because of lesions in the cerebral cortex.
Brain damage causes spasticity due to the disruption of facilitatory corticobulbar
fibers and causes inhibition of ventromedial reticular formation .
This was probably due to Wallerian degeneration and/or to arrested development of the corticospinal and corticobulbar
tracts, as well as pontocerebellar connections, which were well demonstrated by neurofilament immunostaining (Figure 6, C and D).
PBA is thought to occur as a result of injury or disease that disrupts pathways regulating emotional expression, or affect, including the corticobulbar
tracts and basal ganglia.
LIS was originally introduced by Plum and Posner in 1966 as a condition associated with lesion of the ventral pons, disrupting the corticospinal and corticobulbar
pathways without involvement of the cortex .
Wilson (7) in 1924 proposed that pathological laughing and crying (PLC) was related to motor disinhibition resulting from bilateral corticobulbar
lesions that disengaged a brainstem "faciorespiratory center" from cortical levels of control.
Its really interesting and exciting effect is the hypothesis that the pharyngeal electrical stimulation causes corticobulbar
excitability change and cortical reorganization, resulting in an increase in neural plasticity (2,3,8,12).
(3) Larger lesions extend laterally while sparing the corticospinal and corticobulbar