cortical hormone


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Related to cortical hormone: adrenal cortical hormones, adrenocortical hormones

hormone

 [hor´mōn]
a chemical transmitter substance produced by cells of the body and transported by the bloodstream to the cells and organs on which it has a specific regulatory effect. adj., adj hormo´nal. Hormones act as chemical messengers to body organs, stimulating certain life processes and retarding others. Growth, reproduction, control of metabolic processes, sexual attributes, and even mental conditions and personality traits are dependent on hormones.

Hormones are produced by various organs and body tissues, but mainly by the endocrine glands, such as the pituitary, thyroid, and gonads (testes and ovaries). Each gland apparently synthesizes several kinds of hormones; the adrenal glands alone produce more than 25 varieties. The total number of hormones is still unknown, but each has its unique function and its own chemical formula. After a hormone is discharged by its parent gland into the capillaries or the lymph, it may travel a circuitous path through the bloodstream to exert influence on cells, tissues, and organs (target organs) far removed from its site of origin.

One of the best-known endocrine hormones is insulin, a protein manufactured by the beta cells of the islands of Langerhans in the pancreas that is important in carbohydrate metabolism. Other important hormones are thyroxine, an iodine-carrying amino acid produced by the thyroid gland; cortisone, a member of the steroid family from the adrenal glands; and the sex hormones, estrogen from the ovaries and androgen from the testes. Certain hormone substances can be synthesized in the laboratory for treatment of human disease. Animal hormones can also be used, as endocrine hormones are to some extent interchangeable among species. Extracts from the pancreas of cattle, for example, enabled diabetes sufferers to live normal lives even before the chemistry of insulin was fully understood.

Endocrine hormone synthesis and secretion is controlled and regulated by a closed-loop system. Negative feedback loops maintain optimal levels of each hormone in the body. If there are abnormally high levels of a hormone in the blood, feedback to the gland responsible for its production inhibits secretion. If there are abnormally low levels, the gland is stimulated to step up production and secretion. In this way a homeostatic balance is maintained. (See also endocrine glands.)
adrenocortical hormone
1. any of the corticosteroids secreted by the adrenal cortex, the major ones being the glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids, and including some androgens, progesterone, and estrogens.
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) corticotropin.
adrenomedullary h's substances secreted by the adrenal medulla, including epinephrine and norepinephrine.
androgenic hormone androgen.
anterior pituitary hormone any of the protein or polypeptide hormones secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, including growth hormone, thyrotropin, prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, and corticotropin.
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) vasopressin.
corpus luteum hormone progesterone.
cortical hormone corticosteroid.
corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) a neuropeptide secreted by the median eminence of the hypothalamus that binds to specific receptors on the corticotroph cells of the anterior pituitary and stimulates the secretion of corticotropin.
ectopic h's those secreted by tumors of nonendocrine tissues but having the same physiologic effects as their normally produced counterparts. It is not known exactly how the synthesis and secretion of endocrine hormones from nonendocrine tissues occurs. Most of these tumors are derived from tissues that have a common embryonic origin with endocrine tissues. When the cells undergo neoplastic transformation, they can revert to a more primitive stage of development and begin to synthesize hormones.

Ectopic hormones present serious problems for patients and add to the complexity of caring for those with certain kinds of neoplastic diseases. These hormones do not respond to the feedback mechanisms that regulate normal hormonal production; hence, surgery and destruction of the tumorous tissue by radiation and chemotherapy are the treatments of choice.
estrogenic hormone estrogen.
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) one of the gonadotropins of the anterior pituitary, which stimulates the growth and maturity of graafian follicles in the ovary, and stimulates spermatogenesis in the male.
follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone–releasing hormone (FSH/LH-RH) luteinizing hormone–releasing hormone.
follicle-stimulating hormone–releasing hormone (FSH-RH) luteinizing hormone–releasing hormone.
gonadotropic hormone gonadotropin.
gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH) luteinizing hormone–releasing hormone.
growth hormone (GH) any of several related polypeptide hormones secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland that directly influence protein, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism and control the rate of skeletal and visceral growth; their secretion is in part controlled by the hypothalamus. It is used pharmaceutically as somatrem and somatropin. Called also somatotrophin, somatotropin, and somatotrophic or somatotropic hormone.
growth hormone release–inhibiting hormone somatostatin.
growth hormone–releasing hormone (GH-RH) a neuropeptide elaborated by the median eminence of the hypothalamus that binds to specific receptors on the somatotroph cells of the anterior pituitary and stimulates the secretion of growth hormone.
interstitial cell–stimulating hormone luteinizing hormone.
lactation hormone (lactogenic hormone) prolactin.
local hormone a substance with hormone like properties that acts at an anatomically restricted site; most are rapidly degraded. Called also autacoid and autocoid.
luteinizing hormone (LH) a gonadotropin of the anterior pituitary gland, acting with follicle-stimulating hormone to cause ovulation of mature follicles and secretion of estrogen by thecal and granulosa cells of the ovary; it is also concerned with corpus luteum formation. In the male, it stimulates development of the interstitial cells of the testes and their secretion of testosterone. Called also interstitial cell–stimulating hormone.
luteinizing hormone–releasing hormone (LH-RH) a decapeptide hormone of the hypothalamus, which stimulates the release of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone from the pituitary gland; it can be used in the differential diagnosis of hypothalamic, pituitary, and gonadal dysfunction. Called also follicle-stimulating hormone–releasing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone–releasing hormone, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone.
melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) a substance from the anterior pituitary gland of certain other animals but not humans; it influences the formation or deposition of melanin in the body and pigmentation of the skin.
neurohypophyseal h's those stored and released by the neurohypophysis, i.e., oxytocin and vasopressin.
parathyroid hormone (PTH) a polypeptide hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands that influences calcium and phosphorus metabolism and bone formation.
placental h's hormones secreted by the placenta, including chorionic gonadotropin, and other substances having estrogenic, progestational, or adrenocorticoid activity.
progestational hormone
2. progestational agent.
prolactin-inhibiting hormone a hormone released by the hypothalamus that inhibits the secretion of prolactin by the anterior pituitary gland.
prolactin-releasing hormone any of various hormones elaborated by the hypothalamus that stimulate the release of prolactin by the anterior pituitary gland. Most such activity is exerted by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, although in humans thyrotropin-releasing hormone can also have this action.
sex h's see sex hormones.
somatotrophic hormone (somatotropic hormone) growth hormone.
somatotropin release–inhibiting hormone somatostatin.
somatotropin-releasing hormone (SRH) growth hormone–releasing hormone.
steroid h's hormones that are biologically active steroids; they are secreted by the adrenal cortex, testis, ovary, and placenta and include the progestational agents, glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, androgens, and estrogens. They act by binding to specific receptors to form complexes, which then enhance or inhibit the expression of specific genes.
thyroid h's see thyroid hormones.
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) thyrotropin.
thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) a tripeptide hormone of the hypothalamus, which stimulates release of thyrotropin from the pituitary gland. In humans, it also acts as a prolactinreleasing factor. It is used in the diagnosis of mild hyperthyroidism and Graves disease, and in differentiating between primary, secondary, and tertiary hypothyroidism.

cortical hormone

A nonspecific term for any steroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex.

hormone

(hor'mon?) [Gr. horman, to excite, urge on]
1. A substance originating in an organ, gland, or body part, conveyed through the blood to another body part, and chemically stimulating that part to increase or decrease functional activity or to increase or decrease secretion of another hormone.
2. The secretion of the ductless glands, e.g., insulin from the pancreas. See: endocrine glandhormonal (hor-mon'al), adjective

adrenocortical hormone

Abbreviation: ACH
A hormone (such as aldosterone or cortisol) secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland.
Synonym: cortical hormone See: adrenal gland

adrenocorticotropic hormone

Abbreviation: ACTH
A hormone that is secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and controls the development and functioning of the adrenal cortex, including its secretion of glucocorticoids and androgens.
Synonym: corticotropin

adrenomedullary hormone

Any of several hormones (such as epinephrine and norepinephrine) produced by the adrenal medulla.

androgenic hormone

Androgen.

anterior pituitary hormone

Any of several hormones secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary, including corticotropin, follicle-stimulating hormone, gonadotropin, growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and thyrotropin.

antidiuretic hormone

Abbreviation: ADH
A peptide hormone that plays a crucial role in limiting the amount of water excreted by the kidneys. Deficiency of ADH causes central diabetes insipidus, excess causes water retention and hyponatremia. Synonym: vasopressin

ADH is produced by the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary gland; it is secreted when the osmolarity of plasma rises. Secretion of ADH increases the concentration of the urine by preventing water losses from the renal tubules. ADH also causes constriction of arterioles (raising blood pressure) and increases levels of clotting factor VIII. ADH can be administered to patients in cardiac arrest as an alternative to epinephrine.

atrial natriuretic hormone

Atrial natriuretic factor.

bioidentical natural hormone

Bioidentical synthetic hormone.

bioidentical synthetic hormone

Abbreviation: BSH
A compound extracted from plants or formulated in the laboratory and used to replace or increase concentrations of hormones found in the body. The most commonly manufactured and marketed BSHs are the sex steroid hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone).
Synonym: bioidentical natural hormone

calcitonin hormone

Calcitonin.

corpus luteum hormone

Progesterone.

cortical hormone

Adrenocortical hormone.

corticotropin-releasing hormone

Abbreviation: CRH
A hormone that is released from the hypothalamus and acts on the anterior pituitary to increase secretion of adrenal corticotropin hormone. In response to stress, CRH causes hyperglycemia, increased oxygen consumption, increased cardiac output, and decreased sexual activity; suppresses release of growth hormone; diminishes gastrointestinal function; stimulates respiration; and causes behavioral changes.
Synonym: corticotropin-releasing factor

counterregulatory hormone

Any of the hormones that oppose the effects of insulin. They include glucagon, epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol, and growth hormone.

digestive hormone

Any of a group of hormones produced by the stomach or small intestinal mucosa and stimulating various tissues to release enzymes, produce fluids, or affect gastrointestinal motility. They include gastrin, motilin, secretin, cholecystokinin, and vasoactive intestinal peptide.

estrogenic hormone

Estrogen.

follicle-stimulating hormone

Abbreviation: FSH
A hormone that is secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary and stimulates maturation of the ovarian follicles in women. In men, the hormone is important in maintaining spermatogenesis.

follicle-stimulating hormone releasing hormone

Abbreviation: FSH-RH
A hormone from the hypothalamus that regulates release of follicle-stimulating hormone.

gastric hormone

Gastrin.

gonadotropic hormone

, gonadotrophic hormoneGonadotropin.

gonadotropin-releasing hormone

Abbreviation: Gn-RH
The hormone produced in the hypothalamus that causes the pituitary to release luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. This hormone is used in treating endometriosis.
Synonym: luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone

growth hormone

Abbreviation: GH
A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary and regulating the cell division and protein synthesis necessary for normal growth. It is a protein made from a single chain of amino acids; molecular weight 22 kDa. Synonym: somatotropin

growth hormone-releasing hormone

Abbreviation: GH-RH
A hormone from the hypothalamus that stimulates the release of growth hormone.
Synonym: somatotropin-releasing hormone

human growth hormone

Abbreviation: HGH
See: growth hormone

human placental lactogen hormone

See: human placental lactogen

immunoregulatory hormone

A hormone that influences components of the immune system, including the number and activity of the white blood cells. Such hormones are secreted by almost all of the glands in the body, particularly the hypothalamus and adrenal glands.

inhibitory hormone

Any of a group of substances limiting the release of hormones from the pituitary. Somatostatin, which inhibits the release of growth hormone, is included in this group.

interstitial cell-stimulating hormone

Abbreviation: ICSH
An obsolete term for luteinizing hormone.

intestinal hormone

Any of several hormones produced by the mucosa of the intestine. They include cholecystokinin, motilin, secretin, and vasoactive inhibitory peptide.

lipolytic hormone

Any hormone (such as epinephrine, glucagon, and cortisol) that promotes release of free fatty acids from fat tissue.

luteal hormone

Progesterone.

luteinizing hormone

Abbreviation: LH
A hormone produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary, in females stimulating the development of the corpus luteum and helping in the secretion of progesterone, and in males stimulating the development of interstitial cells of the testes to produce testosterone.
Synonym: luteotropic hormone

luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone

Abbreviation: LH-RH
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone.

luteotropic hormone

Abbreviation: LTH
Luteinizing hormone.

melanocyte-stimulating hormone

Abbreviation: MSH
A hormone of the anterior pituitary gland that causes pigmentation of the skin in humans.
Synonym: intermedin

ovarian hormone

A hormone produced by the ovary.
See: estradiol; estriol; estrogen; estrone; progesterone

pancreatic hormone

A hormone produced by the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas.
See: glucagon; insulin

parathyroid hormone

Abbreviation: PTH
A hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands that regulates blood levels of calcium and phosphorus. A deficiency results in hypoparathyroidism and hypocalcemia; in excess, it causes hyperparathyroidism and hypercalcemia.
Synonym: parathormone

placental hormone

Any of the hormones secreted by the placenta, including estrogen, progesterone, and human chorionic gonadotropin.

posterior pituitary hormone

Any of the hormones secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary (such as vasopressin and oxytocin).
See: antidiuretic hormone

progestational hormone

Progesterone.

releasing hormone

Abbreviation: RH
Any of a group of substances secreted by the hypothalamus that control or inhibit the release of various hormones. They include thyrotropin-releasing hormone, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, dopamine, growth hormone-releasing hormone, corticotropin-releasing hormone, and somatostatin. Dopamine and somatostatin act to inhibit release of the hormones they act upon.

sex hormone

An androgen or an estrogen.

somatotropic hormone

Abbreviation: STH
Somatotropin.

somatotropin-releasing hormone

Growth hormone-releasing hormone.

steroid hormone

One of the sex hormones and hormones of the adrenal cortex.

synthetic human growth hormone

A growth hormone made with recombinant DNA techniques.

testicular hormone

A hormone produced by the interstitial tissue of the testis (such as testosterone and inhibin).

thymic hormone

Any of the hormones produced by the thymus that may help attract lymphoid stem cells to the thymus and stimulate their development into mature T lymphocytes. They include thymulin, thymopoietin, and thymosin.

thyroid hormone

Either of two hormones, thyroxine (T4) or triiodothyronine (T3, secreted by the follicles of the thyroid gland. They act on receptors in tissues throughout the body to increase the production of cellular proteins, the metabolic rate, and the activities of the sympathetic nervous system. Deficiency of thyroid hormone produces clinical hypothyroidism; excess causes hyperthyroidism.

thyroid-stimulating hormone

Abbreviation: TSH
Thyrotropin.

thyrotropic hormone

Thyrotropin.

thyrotropin-releasing hormone

Abbreviation: TRH
A hormone secreted by the hypothalamus that stimulates the anterior pituitary to release thyrotropin. It was formerly called thyroid-stimulating hormone-releasing factor.

tropic hormone

A hormone secreted by one gland (e.g. the pituitary gland) that stimulates another gland to secrete its hormone or hormones.

hormone

a chemical transmitter substance produced by cells of the body and transported by the bloodstream and other means to the cells and organs which carry specific receptors for the hormone and on which it has a specific regulatory effect.
Hormones act as chemical messengers to body organs, stimulating certain life processes and retarding others. Growth, reproduction, control of metabolic processes, sexual attributes and behavior are dependent on hormones.
Hormones are produced by various organs and body tissues, but mainly by the endocrine glands, such as the pituitary, thyroid and gonads (testes and ovaries). Each gland apparently manufactures several kinds of hormones; the adrenal glands alone produce more than 25 varieties. The total number of hormones is still unknown, but each has its unique function and structure. After a hormone is discharged by its parent gland into the capillaries or the lymph, it may travel a circuitous path through the bloodstream to exert influence on cells, tissues and organs (target organs) far removed from its site of origin.

adrenomedullary h's
substances secreted by the adrenal medulla, including epinephrine and norepinephrine.
androgenic h's
the masculinizing hormones, androstenedione and testosterone.
hormone assay
modern techniques include the use of competitive protein binding assay and radioimmunoassay.
calciotropic hormone
any hormone which is specifically involved in the homeostatic regulation of serum calcium levels through their effects on bone and other organs, e.g. parathyroid hormone, calcitonin.
corpus luteum hormone
progesterone.
cortical hormone
corticosteroid.
ectopic h's
those secreted by tumors of nonendocrine tissues but having the same physiological effects as their normally produced counterparts. It is not known exactly how the synthesis and secretion of endocrine hormones from nonendocrine tissues occurs. Most of these tumors are derived from tissues that have a common embryonic origin with endocrine tissues. When the cells undergo neoplastic transformation, they can revert to a more primitive stage of development and begin to synthesize hormones.
enteric hormone
hormone secreted by endocrine cells in the wall of the intestine or stomach or in the pancreas. Includes gastrin, cholecystokinin, secretin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, enteroglucagon, motilin, neurotensin, 5-HT, substance P, pancreatic polypeptide, somatostatin.
estrogenic h's
substances capable of producing certain biological effects, the most characteristic of which are the changes which occur in mammals at estrus; the naturally occurring estrogenic hormones are β-estradiol, estrone and estriol.
gonadal h's
steroids in birds which affect development of the reproductive tubular system, head decorations, feathers, squawk, behavior.
hormone herbicide
substances sprayed on plants which exert a lethal hormonal effect on the entire plant. See also hormone weedkiller (below).
lactation hormone, lactogenic hormone
prolactin.
luteotropic hormone (LTH)
neurohypophyseal h's
those stored and released by the neurohypophysis, i.e. oxytocin and vasopressin.
peptide h's
peptide molecules which exert their effects only on target cells that carry the hormone-specific receptors.
placental hormone
one secreted by the placenta, including chorionic gonadotropin, relaxin, and other substances having estrogenic, progestational or adrenocorticoid activity. See also placental hormones.
progestational h's
substances, including progesterone, that are concerned mainly with preparing the endometrium for nidation of the fertilized ovum if conception has occurred. See also progestational agent.
hormone receptors
the presence of hormone-specific receptors on cells is the means of determining which cells respond to the circulating hormones. The number of receptors on each cell is one of the ways of regulating the degree of response.
sex h's
see sex hormones.
somatotrophic hormone, somatotropic hormone
growth hormone.
somatotropin release inhibiting hormone
somatostatin.
somatotropin releasing hormone (SRH)
growth hormone releasing hormone.
thymic hormone
thymosin.
hormone weedkiller
includes 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, MCP, silvex, dalapon. See also tcdd, hcdd and dioxin.