corpulence


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

o·be·si·ty

(ō-bē'si-tē), [MIM*601665]
An excess of subcutaneous fat in proportion to lean body mass. Excess fat accumulation is associated with increase in the size (hypertrophy) as well as the number (hyperplasia) of adipose tissue cells. Obesity is variously defined in terms of absolute weight, weight:height ratio, distribution of subcutaneous fat, and societal and esthetic norms. Measures of weight in proportion to height include relative weight (RW, body weight divided by median desirable weight for a person of the same height and medium frame according to actuarial tables), body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and ponderal index (kg/m3). These do not differentiate between excess adiposity and increased lean body mass. In contrast, subscapular and triceps skinfold measurements and determination of the waist:hip ratio help define the regional deposition of fat and differentiate the more medically significant central obesity from peripheral obesity in adults. No single cause can explain all cases of obesity. Ultimately it results from an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Although faulty eating habits related to failure of normal satiety feedback mechanisms may be responsible for some cases, many obese people neither consume more calories nor eat different proportions of foodstuffs than nonobese persons. Contrary to popular belief, obesity is not caused by disorders of pituitary, thyroid, or adrenal gland metabolism. However, it is often associated with hyperinsulinism and relative insulin resistance. Studies of obese twins strongly suggest the presence of genetic influences on resting metabolic rate, feeding behavior, changes in energy expenditures in response to overfeeding, lipoprotein lipase activity, and basal rate of lipolysis. Environmental factors associated with obesity include socioeconomic status, race, region of residence, season, urban living, and being part of a smaller family. The prevalence of obesity is greater when weight is measured during winter rather than summer. Obesity is much more common in the southeastern U.S., although the northeastern and midwestern states also have high rates, a phenomenon independent of race, population density, and season.
Synonym(s): adiposity (1) , corpulence, corpulency
[L. obesus, pp. of obedo, to eat up, + -ity]

Obesity is a major public health problem and the leading nutritional disorder in the U.S. It is responsible for more than 280,000 deaths annually in this country. A widely accepted definition of obesity is body weight that is 20% or more in excess of ideal weight:height ratio according to actuarial tables. By this definition, 34% of adults in the U.S. are obese. The National Institutes of Health have defined obesity as a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or more, and overweight as a BMI between 25 and 30 kg/m2. By these criteria, two thirds of adults are either overweight or obese. There is strong evidence that the prevalence of obesity is increasing in both children and adults. Increases are particularly striking among African-Americans and Mexican-Americans. More than 80% of black women over the age of 40 are overweight, and 50% are obese. Among factors blamed for the steady increase in the prevalence of obesity are unhealthful eating practices (high-fat diet, overlarge portions) and the decline in physical activity associated with use of automobiles and public transportation instead of walking, labor-saving devices including computers, and passive forms of entertainment and recreation (television, computer games). Despite efforts of public health authorities to educate the public about the dangers of obesity, it is widely viewed as a cosmetic rather than a medical problem. Obesity is an independent risk factor for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, certain malignancies (cancer of the colon, rectum, and prostate in men and of the breast, cervix, endometrium, and ovary in women), obstructive sleep apnea, hypoventilation syndrome, osteoarthritis and other orthopedic disorders, infertility, lower extremity venous stasis disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and urinary stress incontinence. Lesser degrees of obesity can constitute a significant health hazard in the presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart disease, or their associated risk factors. Body fat distribution in central (abdominal or male pattern, with an increased waist:hip ratio) versus peripheral (gluteal or female pattern) adipose tissue depots is associated with higher risks of many of these disorders. Obese people are more liable to injury, more difficult to examine by palpation and imaging techniques, and more likely to have unsuccessful outcomes and complications from surgical operations. Not least among the adverse effects of obesity are social stigmatization, poor self-image, and psychological stress. Weight reduction is associated with improvement in most of the health risks of obesity. All treatments for obesity (other than cosmetic surgical procedures in which subcutaneous fat is mechanically removed) require creation of an energy deficit by reducing caloric intake, increasing physical exercise, or both. Basic weight reduction programs involve consumption of a restricted-calorie, low-fat diet and performance of at least 30 minutes of endurance-type physical activity of at least moderate intensity on most and preferably all days of the week. Behavior modification therapy, hypnosis, anorexiant drugs (sympathomimetic agents, sibutramine), the lipase inhibitor orlistat, and surgical procedures to reduce gastric capacity or intestinal absorption of nutrients are useful in selected cases, but the emphasis should be on establishing permanent changes in lifestyle. Weight reduction is not recommended during pregnancy or in patients with osteoporosis, cholelithiasis, severe mental illness including anorexia nervosa, or terminal illness.

Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

corpulence

(kôr′pyə-ləns)
n.
The condition of being excessively fat; obesity.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

o·be·si·ty

(ō-bē'si-tē)
An excessive accumulation of fat in the body.
Synonym(s): adiposity (1) , corpulence, corpulency.
[L. obesus, pp. of obedo, to eat up, + -ity]
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

corpulence

Obesity. Being excessively fat.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Moreover, one might bear in mind the fact that the "problem" of adult corpulence, while real, remains the sort of problem that much of the rest of humanity would like to have.
Barber have explored the significance of these parallels to Falstaff in important studies of, respectively, the dramatic and the anthropological contexts of the Henry IV plays.(3) But neither Dover Wilson nor Barber reflected on the significance of the fact that it was the historical figure Shakespeare inherited under the name of Oldcastle, and eventually renamed Falstaff, rather than any other character, that was chosen to assume the role of Riot or Vice, and to bear its corpulence. It is a shortcoming in the work of Barber and Dover Wilson that, were it suddenly to be discovered that Shakespeare had made Poins, rather than Falstaff, fat, they would need only to tinker with a few proper names.
Jumping now over many centuries and cultures, we discover a slightly different portrait of elephants in the fables of Jean de La Fontaine.(4) In "Le Rat et l'Elephant"/The Rat and the Elephant, for example, the rat pokes fun at the larger animal's corpulence and laughs at how slowly the latter moves.
Ignatius, on the other hand, is onanistic, laughably indolent, dependent upon his mother, and of almost legendary corpulence. The settings--a naive rural valley and an experienced city of Bacchanalian proportion--reflect this inversion of narrative technique as well.
When applied to individual parts of the body obesus appears to refer to unusual thickness, not to general corpulence.(2) Suetonius' physical descriptions of the Caesars elsewhere occasionally comment separately on the categories of body and neck: thus Gaius Caligula is described as |corpore enormi, gracilitate maxima cervicis et crurum' (Cal.
She notes that Falstaff's body, with its "increasingly feminized" belly (463), demonstrates the grotesque corpulence and openness that early modern societies attributed to the maternal body.
This text imagines painting, with its flesh tones and its chiaroscuro effects, as born from dreaming of an intimate union between corpulence and contemplativeness - in color, of course.
Des roues en aluminium usinees accentuent sa corpulence athletique.
Body corpulence is a remarkably resilient phenotype, tracking from childhood, through adolescence and into adulthood (6).
Ce sobriquet lui est attribue par rapport a sa corpulence et a sa beaute.