Therefore, the traits significantly affected by each QTL were also tested for significant association with each local region, the molar and incisor alveolar regions and the coronoid
, condyloid, angular, and masseteric regions of the ascending ramus [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 1 OMITTED] using the Phi coefficient and a one-way Fisher's exact test.
Statistical analysis: Data for analyses consisted in fourteen variables measured on the skull and two angles (CPA: Coronoid
Process angle and ECA: Elevation of Condyle angle) expressed as radians (Table 1).
Caption: Figure 1: 3-Dimensional reconstruction of CT imaging shows recurrent tumour of the grafted bone and remnant coronoid
Le t condyle, coronoid
process, and angular process were preserved.
Type of fracture Patients % Mandible 101 54.6 Angle 9 4.9 Comminuted 3 1.6 Condyle 24 13.0 Body 37 20.0 Parasymphysis 9 4.9 Symphysis 9 4.9 Ramus 9 4.9 Coronoid
proccess 1 0.5 Zygoma 51 27.6 Nasal bones 8 4.3 Maxilla 14 7.6 Le Fort I 4 2.2 Le Fort II 2 1.1 Le Fort III 6 3.3 Comminuted 2 1.1 Dento-alveolar 7 3.8 Orbital floor 4 2.2 Table 2--Causes of maxillofacial injuries.
Radiographically, the anterior fat pad is a superimposition of the radial and coronoid
fat pads when viewing a lateral radiograph.
The expansion of the coronoid
region may have a similar interpretation in terms of mechanical advantage due to increased insertion area and moment arm for an expanded adductor muscle and its derivatives.
The efficiency of jaw mechanics was evaluated by use of coronoid-condyloid length, length of the mandible parallel to the ventral edge from the lower condylar facet to the tip of i1 (lower incisor), and the angle ([Alpha]) subtended by a line from the apex of the coronoid
process through the distalmost extension of the lower condylar facet and a line along the ventral edge of the dentary (Carraway and Verts, 1994).
Morphometric measurements made on dry mandibles (Ongkana & Sudwan, 2009; Vinay et al, 2013; Datta et al, 2015) or on orthopantomographs (OPT) (Indira et al, 2012) or on mandibular images obtained by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) (Gamba et al, 2016) revealed that osteometric parameters that included ramus height and breadth, coronoid
height, mandibular length, bigonial breadth, and bicondylar breadth showed significant difference between males and females.
Fractures of the ulna coronoid
process are relatively rare and are reported to occur in 2%-10% of patients who have a dislocated elbow .
5###Suture between parietal and interparietal###5###Top of the coronoid